コロナの英語 表現・用例集(COVID-19)

時事英語
スポンサーリンク

新型コロナの英語、分かっているようで分からないこともあるかもしれません。この際、きちんと、コロナ用語を押さえておきたい。あれは英語で言うとどうなんだろう、というときに調べやすいサイトはないだろうか。用例も見たい。こんな要望に応えます。

既にコロナ用語集は他にもありますが、この記事には、たくさんの用語・用例を集めています。

用語・表現リストは枠で囲みます。補足説明はダイヤ「♢」の後に、用例は三角「▽」の後に掲載します。入れ替え可能な単語・語句は波括弧{}で示します。複数の用例がある場合は縦の直線「|」で区切りを示します。用例は信頼のおける報道機関や保健当局などのウエブサイトから引用しています。出典は脚注をご覧ください。目次はカテゴリー分類を示しますので、調べたい用語を探す手がかりとなりますが、検索する方が早いかもしれません。

病気・ウイルス

  • COVID-19:病名、新型コロナウイルス感染症♢名前の由来:coronavirus disease 2019▽The new proof comes from a 33-year-old man in Hong Kong who first caught COVID-19 in March.1The vast majority — perhaps 80% or more — of people who come down with Covid-19, especially those under 50, will suffer symptoms that are no more serious than a bad cold or a mild flu and will be better within two weeks.2
  • the novel {new} coronavirus:新型コロナウイルス♢「novel」や「new」は当初に比べると省かれることが多くなっている▽As many as 25 percent of people infected with the new coronavirus may not show symptoms, the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns.3
  • SARS-CoV-2:ウイルス名、新型コロナウイルス感染症を引き起こすウイルスの名前♢名前の由来:severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 22002年~2004年のSARSを引き起こしたウイルスはSARS-CoV-1またはSARS-CoVと呼ばれる)▽SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes COVID-19.4

Sars-Cov-2coronavirus=コロナウイルスの一種です。Coronavirus名前の由来はOxfordのオンライン辞書「Lexicoに、「1960s from corona + virus (with reference to the appearance of the virus, reminiscent of the solar corona, when studied through an electron microscope)」という説明があります。電子顕微鏡で観察すると、コロナウイルスは太陽コロナに似ていることから、このように名付けられたということです。英語で「corona」は「光冠、光環」を意味します。

下は、SAR-CoV-2ウイルスの写真です。

(Image by NIAID at https://flickr.com/photos/54591706@N02/49534865371/. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.)5

下の太陽コロナの写真と比べてください。

(Image by Luc Viatour / https://Lucnix.be/. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.)6

ところで、今回の新型コロナウイルス発見以前に分かっていたコロナウイルスは全部で6種類です。そのうち4種類は風邪を引き起こすウイルスで、2種類は2002年~2004年のSARSを引き起こしたウイルスと2012年に報告されたMERSの原因であるウイルスです。7

コロナウイルスの形は球形で、表面には突起が見られます。突起は英語でspikeと言います。突起はヒト細胞側の受容体と結合し、これを足場として細胞の中に入り込むことで一連の感染過程が始まります。この説明を英語で読もうと思ったら無料で読めるオンライン記事はたくさんありますが、分かりやすい記事の一例はこれです。

ウイルスの構造を図で見ましょう。

(SARS- CoV 2 Structure. Contributed by Rohan Bir Singh, MD; Made with Biorender.com. Distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.)8

ちなみに、石鹸など界面活性剤がウイルスを洗い流すのに効果がある理由は、ウイルスを覆っている膜(membrane)に含まれる油脂(lipids)に作用するからです。9 油汚れを落とすには石鹸などが有効ですから、うなずけますね。

  • spike:突起▽The mutation, named D614G, increased the number of “spikes” on the coronavirus — which is the part that gives it its distinctive shape. Those spikes are what allow the virus to bind to and infect cells.10
  • variant:変異種、変異株▽Officials are deploying surge testing in parts of south London after detecting dozens of cases of the South African variant, which appears to be more resistant to current vaccines.11 | People infected with the more contagious coronavirus variant first identified in the United Kingdom did not experience more severe symptoms and were not at higher risk of death, according to a new study published Monday.12
  • Delta variant:デルタ株▽The World Health Organization says the Delta variant, also known as B.1.617.2, has spread to at least 85 countries since it was first identified in India last fall.13
  • strain:種(しゅ)、菌株▽New York Governor Andrew Cuomo on Friday pointed to research showing that strains of the novel coronavirus entered his state from Europe, not China, and said that travel bans enacted by U.S. President Donald Trump were too late to halt its spread.14Since the emergence of the new coronavirus, called SARS-CoV-2, several researchers have proposed that there is more than one strain, and that mutations have led to changes in how infectious and deadly it is. However, opinions are divided.15
  • mutation:(遺伝子)変異▽Researchers at DeCode genetics have found forty mutations of the coronavirus in Iceland alone; one individual had been infected by two variants at the same time.16

症状

症状に関しては、アメリカのCDC(疾病管理予防センター)のウエブサイト等を参考にしています。

  • fever or chills:発熱、悪寒、寒気
  • cough:咳
  • shortness of breath or difficulty breathing:息切れ、息苦しさ
  • fatigue:倦怠感
  • muscle or body aches:筋肉など体の痛み
  • headache:頭痛
  • new loss of taste or smell:味覚・嗅覚異常
  • sore throat:咽頭痛
  • runny nose or congestion:鼻水、鼻づまり
  • nausea or vomiting:吐き気
  • diarrhea:下痢
  • severe case {serious case}:重症▽Being obese reduces the chance of survival in severe cases of Covid-19.17One in five people around the world could be at risk of developing a severe case of Covid-19, an international team of scientists has estimated.18Japanese authorities said they had confirmed 389 new cases in the capital, nearly two-thirds of whom were aged under 40. The number of serious cases rose from three to 24.19
  • mild case:軽症▽Brazil’s health ministry recommended Wednesday using chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to treat even mild cases of COVID-19, treatments President Jair Bolsonaro has pushed for despite a lack of conclusive evidence of their effectiveness.20
  • mildly symptomatic case:軽症▽Health officials at the beginning of the pandemic had urged citizens to report even mildly symptomatic cases, which would then be taken to designated isolation hospitals across the country.21
  • mildly symptomatic patients:軽症者▽Based on the findings, they said “the loss of smell or taste is among the most common and persistent symptoms of mildly symptomatic patients with COVID-19.22
  • asymptomatic case:無症状▽What’s especially puzzling is why these two groups—presymptomatic transmitters and asymptomatic cases—appear so frequently.23
  • asymptomatic patients:無症状者 ▽Because transmission by asymptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 may be a key factor in community spread, population-based surveillance and isolation of asymptomatic patients may be required.24

感染のメカニズム

WHO=世界保健機関によると、感染経路にはcontact(接触)、droplet(飛沫)airborne(空中浮遊)、fomite(媒介物)、fecal-oral(糞口)、bloodborne(血液伝播)、mother-to-child(母子)、and animal-to-human transmission(動物からヒトへ)があるということです。

  • exposure:曝露、さらされること▽Exposure to the common cold could provide some measure of immunity to Covid-19, a new study suggests.25According to LinkedIn’s latest Workforce Confidence Index, 60 per cent of UK retail employees are worried about exposure to others who are not taking safety guidelines and precautions seriously when returning to work.26
  • spread:広がる(動詞)、感染の広がり(名詞)▽“COVID-19 spreads mainly through close contact from person to person,” Haynes said.27A hospital trust has reminded people to take ‘positive steps’ to slow the spread of Covid-19, after fears that asymptomatic carriers may be unknowingly infecting more vulnerable people.28
  • incubation period:潜伏期間▽The “incubation period” is the time between being exposed to the virus and the onset of symptoms.29
  • asymptomatic:発症しない無症状感染状態を指す▽While scientists still don’t know whether asymptomatic people are as contagious as those who display symptoms, there are still many ways in which they can pass on Covid-19.30
  • asymptomatic transmission {asymptomatic infection} {asymptomatic spread}:無症状感染者からの感染▽The first identified case of asymptomatic transmission of Covid-19 occurred in early January, when a traveller from Wuhan passed on the virus to five family members in different parts of the city of Anyang.31
  • pre-symptomatic:発症前の無症状感染状態を指す▽Researchers at the University of Padova and at Imperial College London have published an article in the journal Nature suggesting asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic people are an important factor in the transmission of COVID-19.32
  • contact transmission:接触感染▽However, although airborne transmission is possible, large droplet or contact transmission is probably responsible for the vast majority of disease transmission.33
  • respiratory droplets:飛沫▽The virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads from person to person in respiratory droplets released when someone with the virus coughs, sneezes or talks.34
  • contaminated surfaces:ウイルスで汚染された物体や表面(ドアノブなど)▽Fears about catching the coronavirus from contaminated surfaces have prompted many of us to spend the past few months wiping down groceries, leaving packages unopened and stressing about touching elevator buttons.35
  • aerosols:微小飛沫(エアロゾル)♢大気中に浮遊する汚染物質などの粒子▽WHO recommends taking specific precautions against aerosols only in hospital settings during specific procedures such as inserting a breathing tube into a patient.36
  • airborne transmission:空気感染▽Professor Benedetta Allegranzi, technical lead for infection prevention and control, said the possibility of airborne transmission in “crowded, closed, poorly ventilated” settings could not be ruled out.37
  • pathogen:病原体▽China has repeatedly found traces of the pathogen on packaging and food, raising fears that imported items are linked to recent virus resurgences in Beijing and the port city of Dalian.38

コロナ禍

「コロナ禍」という日本語表現に関してはNHKのウエブサイトに説明があります。

  • the novel {new} coronavirus pandemic:新型コロナウイルスの世界的感染拡大▽Canada and the U.S. are working out the details of a mutual ban on non-essential travel between the two countries amid the new coronavirus pandemic.39
  • the coronavirus pandemic:新型コロナウイルスの世界的感染拡大♢「novel」や「new」は当初に比べると省かれることが多くなっている▽Once the coronavirus pandemic is over, we must work out how to stop the spread of poor information that has helped make a bad situation that much worse.40
  • the novel {new} coronavirus crisis:新型コロナウイルス危機▽Your local bookshop may already have an online relief fund set up to support its business and laid-off employees during the novel coronavirus crisis.41
  • the coronavirus crisis:新型コロナウイルス危機▽For better or worse, and regardless of whether such measures are justified by the coronavirus crisis, the Western world is heading for the largest crackdown on civil liberties it’s ever seen.42
  • the coronavirus lockdown:新型コロナウイルスによる封鎖▽Non-essential retailers are being allowed to trade once again after the government eased the coronavirus lockdown restrictions.43
  • the COVID-19 pandemic {the COVID pandemic}:新型コロナウイルスの世界的感染拡大♢「-19」は省かれることもある▽The kindness of volunteers who have helped vulnerable residents during the Covid pandemic is being recognised.44
  • the COVID-19 crisis {the COVID crisis}:新型コロナウイルス感染症危機▽Airlines across the world are being crippled by the Covid crisis.45
  • the COVID-19 lockdown {the COVID lockdown}:新型コロナウイルスによる封鎖▽Half of the UK population reported more disturbed sleep than usual under the COVID-19 lockdown, but the opposite is likely to have been true for wildlife.46Devon and Cornwall Police saw a rise in domestic violence incidents reported since the start of the Covid lockdown compared to the same period last year, new figures have revealed.47

感染状況

  • case:症例▽Nearly all Victoria’s second-wave coronavirus cases can be traced back to a single quarantine hotel, an inquiry heard today.48
  • epidemiology / epidemiologically:疫学/疫学的に▽Project OASIS is supported by JHub for “coordination and coherence of the Covid-19 symptom tracker apps; including facilitating the secure transfer of relevant symptom and epidemiology data from the third party Covid-19 apps to the NHSx datastore.”49By July 13 – A total of 46 people have been epidemiologically linked to the Stamford Plaza outbreak are diagnosed with COVID-19.50
  • Infection:感染▽The country has so far registered a total of 161,253 infections.51The risk of infection increases the closer you are to another person with the virus.52
  • confirmed:確認された▽The ministry confirmed 16 additional deaths and said the total number of confirmed cases had increased to 153,660, while confirmed deaths had reached 2,442.53The surgeon, who works at Aintree Hospital, was diagnosed on Monday and is the fifth person from Liverpool confirmed to be infected with the virus.54
  • pandemic:世界的感染拡大♢「epidemic」、「epidemic」、「outbreak」、「cluster」の違いについてはアメリカCDCの説明が有益です。それによると、「epidemic」は通常予期されるレベル以上に感染症の症例が増加することで、「outbreak」もほぼ同様の意味ですが地理的に限定された地域における流行を指します。一方「pandemic」は複数の国・大陸に拡大し非常に多くの人が感染している状態を指す言葉です▽They say the closure of safari tourism, due to the coronavirus pandemic, is decimating the industry, and leading to an increase in poaching.55
  • epidemic:流行、流行病、伝染病
  • outbreak:急激な発生
  • cluster:クラスター(集団、一団)▽New South Wales state struggled with a cluster of infections at an aged care facility, as parts of the country began easing distancing rules.56The local council is also advising people in the LU4 postcode area of the town to get tested after a cluster of new cases was discovered.57
  • spread:流行、感染拡大▽Scientists in Wales will launch a study this week into whether mouthwash can be used to help prevent the spread of coronavirus.58
  • widespread {rampant}:蔓延している▽The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says your first step is to call your healthcare professional if you develop symptoms and have been in contact with a person known to have COVID-19 or traveled to an area where coronavirus is widespread.59|“If you look throughout the United States where coronavirus is rampant, you’ll find that it affects disadvantaged communities more than others,” said Salas.60
  • local transmission:域内感染、市中感染▽The source of the outbreak has baffled health officials, who said they were confident there were was no local transmission of the virus in New Zealand for 102 days and that the family had not travelled overseas. 61
  • locally transmitted:域内感染の▽Vietnam on Monday reported 11 new locally transmitted cases of the novel coronavirus, all linked to a hospital in the central province of Danang. 62
  • reach the peak:ピークに達する▽All indications were that South Africa had reached the peak of Covid-19 infections. 63
  • increase:増加(する)▽The Philippines’ health ministry has reported 6,216 more coronavirus infections, the third-largest daily increase recorded in south-east Asia up to now, Reuters reports.64
  • rise:増加(する)▽The Philippines on Monday reported its highest daily rise in confirmed infections at 6,958.65
  • fall:減少(する)▽The number of daily deaths fell again on Friday to 605, the lowest figure since March 24, the health ministry said.66
  • surge:急増▽South Korea is closing schools in the Seoul metropolitan area as it copes with a nearly two-week surge in coronavirus infections.67
  • resurgence (動詞はresurge):再急増▽The latest figures have shown a possibly worrying resurgence in infections.68More than 50 people tested positive for Covid-19 in the Chinese capital with the outbreak coming more than 50 days after the city’s last local case. It comes amid global fears that the virus can easily resurge after restrictions are eased.69
  • flare up:突然の再急増▽Melbourne, Australia’s second-largest city, went back into lockdown at midnight on Wednesday, forcing five million Australians to stay home for all but essential business for the next six weeks to contain a flare-up of coronavirus cases.70
  • spike:急増▽The spike in new cases underscores the challenge that states across the U.S. are facing as they weigh when to ease restrictions designed to stem the spread of the coronavirus outbreak.71
  • high:(症例数などが)多い、最大数、(増加が)大きい▽Turkey confirmed 1,256 new coronavirus cases on Saturday, the highest daily rise in infections since June …. The French health ministry on Saturday reported 3,310 new coronavirus infections in France over the past 24 hours, setting a new post-lockdown high for the fourth day in a row and taking the country’s cumulative cases to 215,521.72
  • cumulative:累計の、累積の▽Spokane County’s cumulative total of COVID-19 cases is approaching 2,000 as another 53 cases were reported on Thursday, July 9.73
  • death toll {number of the dead} {deaths}:死亡者数 ▽Japan has 16,580 confirmed cases and 830 deaths, according to the health ministry.74Northern Ireland’s official statistics agency said the country’s coronavirus death toll had risen to 859 after another four deaths in the week to 7 August.75
  • tally:記録、数▽The country has the fourth-highest tally of coronavirus cases in the world, with more than 905,000, though is far behind India, Brazil and the US.76
  • die after testing positive for COVID-19:新型コロナウイルスで死亡する▽The health department also reported another 212 Floridians and one non-resident had died after testing positive for the virus.77
  • die after being confirmed to have COVID-19:新型コロナウイルスで死亡する▽The number of people in Britain who have died after being confirmed to have COVID-19 has risen by 43 to 42,632, health officials said on Sunday.78
  • slow:(感染速度)遅くなる、遅くする▽Coronavirus infections have slowed in Finland over the last two weeks despite the reopening of schools in mid-May.79
  • down from:~から減少▽Friday’s figure of 48 cases is down from 69 infections the previous day.80
  • up from:~から増加▽Russia has reported 5,065 new daily coronavirus cases, up from 5,057 in the previous 24 hours, Reuters reports.81
  • excess deaths:超過死亡▽The agency said the number of excess deaths — deaths above the average for the same period in previous years — was 1,035 over the last 19 weeks in total. Excess deaths are considered the most accurate measure of human fatalities linked to Covid-19.82
  • R number (Re or Rt):実効再生産数(effective reproduction number)♢感染症が流行している集団において、ある時点で、一人の感染者から二次感染する人数の平均値。再生産数が1を上回ると、一人の感染者が複数の人に感染させるため、流行は拡大し、1を下回ると、感染者数が減少し、流行は起きないか、収束に向かうと考えられる。[補説]基本再生産数が、その感染症に対する免疫を持っていない集団を対象とするのに対し、実効再生産数は、感染が流行中、あるいは、感染が広がって免疫を持つ人が増えている段階での、感染の広がりやすさを示している。感染症が広がると、時間の経過とともに、免疫を持つ人が増え、感染する可能性のある人の数は減っていく。結果として、再生産数は、感染の広がりとともに低下し、感染は収束に向かう。83▽The R number represents the number of people each Covid-19 positive person goes on to infect.84Nicola Sturgeon has said Scotland’s R number may be over one, while reporting there are 47 new confirmed cases of coronavirus in Scotland in the last 24 hours.85
  • R nought (or R zero or R0):基本再生産数(basic reproduction number)♢ある感染症について、それまでに感染が広がったことがない、あるいは誰も免疫を持っていない集団において、一人の感染者から感染して発症する二次感染者数の平均値。86▽When scientists are faced with a new epidemic, they must act to understand how quickly it spreads. They do this by estimating the basic reproduction number called the R0, or R nought, which reflects how infectious a virus is.87
  • infection rate:感染率▽Lowering the infection rate in those above 70 should be a priority.88Coronavirus cases in St Helens continue to rise but there has been a dip in the weekly infection rate, according to the latest official figures.89
  • death rate:死亡率▽The town had also recorded 76 Covid-19 deaths by June 21, which out of the 1,028 cases estimated, equates to a death rate of 7.39 per cent.90New data has revealed that Midlothian has the highest death rate from Covid-19 in Scotland, and the second highest rate of positive cases.91
  • mark:基準点、到達点▽The number of daily coronavirus cases in Tokyo has risen above the 300 mark for the first time in five days.92
  • second wave:第2波▽Boris Johnson warned last week that there are signs of a “second wave” of coronavirus infections emerging in Europe.93

感染予防・拡大防止

  • mask {facemask}:マスク▽CDC recommends that people wear masks in public settings and when around people who don’t live in your household, especially when other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain.94
  • mask mandate:マスク着用義務▽Los Angeles County will reimpose its mask mandate this weekend in the latest sign that public health officials are struggling with an alarming rise in coronavirus cases tied to the highly contagious Delta variant.95

  • face covering:顔を覆う物▽People must by law wear a face covering in shops, on public transport and public transport premises such as railway and bus stations and airports, and in certain other indoor public places.96
  • non-woven fabric:不織布▽Face masks made from non-woven fabric are more effective at blocking the spread of Covid-19 via airborne respiratory droplets than other types that are commonly available, according to modelling in Japan by the world’s fastest supercomputer.97
  • disinfectant wipes {disinfecting wipes}:除菌シート▽Months into the COVID-19 pandemic, Clorox disinfectant wipes and other cleaning products are still difficult – often impossible – to find.98
  • social distancing {physical distancing}:身体的距離(の確保)▽Are we required to maintain social distancing during an emergency situation such as a fire evacuation?99Since July 4 any two households can meet together under the same roof, and even stay overnight, as long as they observe social distancing.100You need to follow social distancing guidelines to help reduce the spread of COVID-19. This means limiting your contact with other people and keeping a physical distance of 2 metres (6 feet) away from others.101Matt Hancock announced the Government will take rapid action if people refuse to abide by social distancing rules following the latest regional lockdown.102As the Government set out drastic plans to respond to the coronavirus pandemic, everyone is being advised to follow social distancing measures as much as possible.103Businesses should review their risk assessments and include measures to follow social distancing guidelines.104
  • socializing with people outside the household:ほかの家族との交流▽From midnight on Saturday, people living in Oldham, Blackburn and parts of Pendle will be banned from socialising with anyone from outside their household.105Lee urged everyone to stay at home as much as possible and to avoid socialising with others beyond their own household.106A negative COVID-19 test result is “not a passport to party,” Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti said Wednesday, warning his city’s residents against socializing with people outside their household.107
  • flout {defy} social distancing rules {guideline} {measures}:社会的距離を保たない ▽Brits flout social distancing rules and queue for ice cream as lockdown fatigue sets in.108Scores of popular tourist beaches were forced to turn away visitors over the weekend after crowds defied social distancing rules.109
  • avoid close contact:密接を避ける▽Stay at least 6 feet (about 2 arms’ length) from anyone who is not from your household. It’s important to do this everywhere — both indoors and outdoors.110
  • face-to-face contact(人)との対面接触▽If you have repeat prescriptions and are self-isolating, ask a friend, neighbour or relative to pick up your medicines for you. They can drop them off outside your door, so that you can avoid face-to-face contact. 111Limiting close face-to-face contact with others is the best way to reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).112
  • contactless reservations and check-in:対面接触を避けた予約・チェックイン▽We’ve streamlined our online (and contactless) reservations, check-ins, and payment systems so there’s less for you to touch.113
  • contactless payment:対面接触を避けた支払い▽As financial ‘safety and security’ take on a whole new viral meaning, contactless and other modern payment platforms are stepping up to enable regular commerce while still adhering to social distancing and other disease-fighting measures.114
  • hand washing:手洗い▽The NHS says that you should wash your hands with soap and water often, for a period of at least 20 seconds.115Three months after the World Health Organization recommended singing “Happy Birthday” twice during hand washing to fight the coronavirus, Japan’s Fujitsu Ltd has developed an artificial intelligence monitor it says will ensure healthcare, hotel and food industry workers scrub properly.116
  • hand sanitizer:手の除菌用ローション▽How and when should you use hand sanitiser and wash your hands to protect yourself against and prevent the spread of coronavirus?117
  • sanitize hands:手を消毒する ▽When shopping, sanitize hands often and avoid touching the face to reduce risk for transmission of the virus.118
  • flatten the curve:流行曲線をなだらかにする(感染者数のピークを抑えること)▽Four Australian states have recorded no new coronavirus cases in the past 24 hours as the nation continues to flatten the curve and lockdown restrictions begin to ease.119I’m referring to the ‘flatten the curve’ line chart explaining the need to slow down the spread of coronavirus in order not to overwhelm healthcare services.120
  • gargle:うがい(をする)▽University of Edinburgh experts are recruiting people to take part in a study to test whether gargling with salt water could boost the body’s antiviral abilities.121
  • surfactant(s):界面活性剤▽Detergents and surfactants are able to deactivate the COVID-19 virus by breaking down the lipid shell around the virus and/or protein components within it.122
  • isolate {self-isolate}:隔離する{自己隔離する}▽Self-isolating means staying at home and not leaving it. People who have symptoms of coronavirus should isolate themselves for 10 days and arrange to get tested.123
  • quarantine:検疫、隔離(する)▽Quarantine is used to keep someone who might have been exposed to COVID-19 away from others. Quarantine helps prevent spread of disease that can occur before a person knows they are sick or if they are infected with the virus without feeling symptoms.124Everyone arriving in Israel will be required to self-quarantine for 14 days to prevent the spread of coronavirus, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu says.125Holidaymakers have been left with less than a day to return to the UK from France before the new quarantine rules come into place.126
  • closed spaces, crowded places, and close-contact settings:三密(密閉、密集、密接)▽Japan’s public health response emphasized individual behavior, instructing individuals to avoid the “Three Cs”: closed spaces, crowded places, and close-contact settings.127COVID-19 death rates are higher among older people, people in Black and Asian ethnic groups, and for men. It will continue to be important to advise medically vulnerable people to avoid closed spaces, crowded places and close-contact settings.128
  • nonessential {unless absolutely necessary} {{only when essential}}:不要不急の{{絶対必要なときのみ}}▽On Monday evening UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced a national lockdown, with members of the public restricted from leaving their homes for nonessential reasons.129The city’s governor today asked residents to avoid non-essential outings until April 12 to avoid spreading the virus further.130It is important to remember that if you or other members of your household have symptoms of the new coronavirus, you should not leave your house unless absolutely necessary … until your period of self-isolation is over.131The management of passengers on the London Underground and Overground is a matter for TfL who, consistent with Government advice, are encouraging passengers to use public transport only when essential.132
  • restrictions:制限▽Other states are examining such closures and several have already imposed restrictions on travelers crossing their borders.133… there may be restrictions on crossing regional borders.134Google Maps now also includes details on COVID-19 checkpoints and restrictions on crossing national borders.135Statewide restrictions on elective surgeries and procedures were lifted as of April 21. Malls and national parks can reopen under tight restrictions. Hours may vary and will be limited.136The NSW government is reviewing lockdowns month-by-month, and any restrictions that were eased could be ramped up again, depending on how the infection rate responded.137Several countries in Europe, including Poland’s neighbour, the Czech Republic, have decided to relax restrictions on society as the daily growth of new infections has slowed.138
  • stay at home {stay home}:外出を控える、家にいる▽If you have cold or flu-like symptoms, you should stay at home for seven days.139Health officials have urged anyone who feels ill or shows flu or cold-like symptoms to simply stay home in order to minimize the risk of others becoming infected.140
  • lockdown:封鎖▽They are seeing between 70 and 90 cases per 100,000 people. That is about half the rate Leicester was in when it was put into lockdown.141Swindon Borough Council has launched a campaign this week aimed at getting people to follow guidance around social distancing, hand-washing and wearing masks in order to prevent the town from going into lockdown.142Cuba placed Havana back on a strict lockdown on Saturday following a rebound in coronavirus cases, ordering restaurants, bars and pools once more to close, suspending public transportation and banning access to the beach.143The incredible ways people have adapted to life under lockdown are revealed in a new collection of photographs.144Some lockdown measures were eased in England last Wednesday, allowing people from different households to meet outdoors.145
  • state of emergency:緊急事態▽Abe declared the state of emergency on April 7, as virus cases surged. It initially covered only Tokyo and six other areas but later expanded to include the whole country.146Japan has lifted a state of emergency imposed due to the coronavirus in 39 out of 47 prefectures, after a sharp fall in new infections.147Japan will not reintroduce a state of emergency to tackle the novel coronavirus, a government spokesman said on Friday, as cases in Tokyo rose to a two-month high driven by the spread of the virus in the capital’s night spots.148
  • request (for people to stay at home):自粛要請▽Unlike a European-style hard lockdown, Japan’s state of emergency is soft and largely a request for people to stay at home and for non-essential businesses to close or operate shorter hours, a strategy aimed at minimising the economic damage.149Japan has broadened a request for people to stay away from bars, clubs and restaurants across the whole country.150Tokyo Governor Yuriko Koike will ask residents on Wednesday to refrain from going outside for non-essential business at the weekend, public broadcaster NHK said.151
  • contain {limit} the spread of (COVID-19):感染拡大をくいとめる▽Only 17 states across the United States have managed to limit the spread of coronavirus, according to a new interactive tool that tracks the rate of secondary infections of COVID-19. 152The United States’ failure to contain the spread of coronavirus has been met with astonishment and alarm in Europe, as the world’s most powerful country edges closer to a global record of five million confirmed infections. 153
  • prevent {curb} {stem} {slow} the spread of COVID-19:感染拡大を防止する▽But health experts say the evidence is clear that masks can help prevent the spread of COVID-19 and that the more people wearing masks, the better.154Will school temperature checks curb the spread of coronavirus?155
  • disinformation:偽情報▽U.S. officials say Russian intelligence officers are spreading disinformation about the coronavirus pandemic through English-language websites, trying to exploit a crisis that America is struggling to contain before the presidential election in November.156

検査

現在使われている新型コロナウイルス感染症の検査は、PCR検査、抗原検査、抗体検査の3種類です。

PCR検査:新型コロナウイルスに固有の遺伝子を見つける検査です。検体には鼻・喉の奥から拭い取った粘液、唾液を用います。現在感染しているかどうかを調べます。

抗原検査PCR検査と同様に、鼻・喉の粘液、唾液などを検体とし、ウイルスのタンパク質である抗原を検出します。現在感染しているかどうかを調べます。簡便な検査キットが最近開発され、30分程度の短時間で判定できるというメリットがあります。抗原は、ウイルスや細菌などの表面に存在し、生体に免疫応答を引き起こす物質です。抗原は、抗体(体内に入った抗原を排除するために作られるタンパク質)が異物を認識して破壊するための標的となる物質です。ちなみに、インフルエンザの検査も抗原検査です。

抗体検査:過去に感染したかどうかが分かります。抗体は体の中に侵入してきた病原体などに対応するために、免疫反応によって生体内で作られるタンパク質です。発症後数週間後くらいから抗体を検出できると言われています。抗体検査が陽性であれば、過去に「感染した」と言えます。

さらに詳しい説明は、厚生労働省の「新型コロナウイルス感染症に関する検査について」というウエブサイトなどを見てください。

  • test positive / negative (for COVID-19):検査で陽性/陰性判定が出る▽Anyone who tested positive for COVID-19 but never experienced symptoms may discontinue isolation 10 days after they first tested positive for COVID-19.157Ohio governor Mike DeWine announced Thursday morning that he had tested positive for the coronavirus — but on Thursday night, he said a second test came back negative.158Although he had tested negative for the coronavirus, his Delaware care team said the tests available in early April were unreliable.159
  • PCR testPCR検査♢PCRはポリメラーゼ連鎖反応の略▽Today, COVID-19 testing relies primarily on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a technique to amplify the virus’ genetic material, making it easy to detect.160The PCR test looks for evidence that the virus is currently in your body, by detecting the presence of its RNA in a swab sample from your nose/throat.161
  • antigen test:抗原検査▽Because antigen tests don’t amplify viral material but simply detect what is present in the sample, they are less accurate than PCR.162
  • antibody test {serology test}:抗体検査▽Antibody tests check your blood by looking for antibodies, which may tell you if you had a past infection with the virus that causes COVID-19. Antibodies are proteins that help fight off infections and can provide protection against getting that disease again (immunity).163
  • swab:綿棒;綿棒で集めた鼻咽頭ぬぐい液▽The test involves taking a swab of the inside of your nose and the back of your throat, using a long cotton bud.164Like the nasal swab, the saliva test detects active COVID-19 infection in patients who are experiencing symptoms or who may have been exposed to someone with coronavirus.165
  • drive-through testing center {unit} {station}:ドライブスルー検査所▽New York is among roughly 10 states that have set up their own drive-through testing centers, as state and local leaders look to compensate for an acute shortage of tests in the United States.166There are now 65 regional drive-through testing centres set up by the Department of Health that you can get tested at.167

接触者追跡・感染経路調査

  • contact tracing:接触者追跡▽Contact tracing is a process for identifying people at risk of coronavirus (COVID-19) infection because they‘ve been physically close enough to a person who has tested positive.168
  • contact:接触者▽You are considered to be a close contact if you have been informed by an NHS contact tracer that you have been in close contact with someone who has tested positive or live with a person who has symptoms or has tested positive.169If you have been informed that you are a contact of a person who has had a positive test result for COVID-19 , medical advice is clear: you must immediately self-isolate at home for 14 days from the date of your last contact with them.170
  • contact tracing app:接触者確認アプリ▽The NHSX Coronavirus Contact Tracing App was first piloted on the Isle of Wight in May 2020, prior to general release across the country.171

重症化リスクの高い人

  • people at higher of severe illness:重症化リスクの高い人▽Certain groups of people are at higher risk of developing severe illness from COVID-19.172Public Health England also says there are some clinical conditions which put people at even higher risk of severe illness from Covid-19 and that those people should “rigorously follow the social distancing advice in full”.173
  • people at increased risk for severe illness:重症化しやすい人▽It is especially important for people at increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19, and those who live with them, to protect themselves from getting COVID-19.174
  • high-risk people {individuals}:重症化リスクの高い人▽Ensuring people who are in regular contact with high-risk individuals are not infected with coronavirus could be a way of controlling outbreaks, research suggests.175The message is clear – reducing the risk of exposing high-risk people is key to our individual and societal response to the coronavirus outbreak.176
  • clinically vulnerable people:重症化リスクの高い人▽Nadhim Zahawi said a decision had not yet been made on how to prioritise the use of available doses once the priority groups, such as elderly and clinically vulnerable people, had received an initial dose.177
  • people with underlying medical conditions {underlying health condition}:基礎疾患のある人▽The groups of people we are most worried about are: People over70, people with an underlying health condition such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure, and anyone who already has a compromised immune system (for example, some cancer medications affect the immune system).178
  • people who are obese:肥満の人▽It has become clearer that people who are obese are one of the groups at highest risk from the disease, regardless of their age. The CDC recently refined its risk categories for COVID-19, stating that obesity was as big a risk for COVID as having a suppressed immune system or chronic lung or kidney disease.179

治療

  • prone positioning:うつ伏せ姿勢♢新型コロナウイルス感染症で最も影響を受ける肺がこの姿勢によって広がるので症状が改善する可能性がある▽Proning, or prone positioning involves moving an intensive care patient onto their stomach for 12 hours to move fluid that has gathered in their lungs. The technique increases oxygen flow and promotes the use of different parts of the lungs, which lowers their chances of needing ventilation.180
  • ventilators:人工呼吸器▽An increasing number of U.S. covid-19 patients are surviving after they are placed on mechanical ventilators.181
  • anticoagulants:抗凝固剤♢新型コロナウイルス感染症患者においては血栓性イベントのリスクがあるため抗凝固剤が有効とされる▽He was also given anticoagulants to help break up the clot. Vega was able to go home, but still needs to take two types of blood-thinning drugs: a low-dose aspirin and the drug Eliquis, a type of anticoagulant.182
  • remdesivir:レムデシビル▽A large federal study that found an antiviral drug, remdesivir, can hasten the recovery in hospitalized Covid-19 patients, has begun a new phase of investigation.183
  • (convalescent) plasma:回復期血漿(けっしょう)▽Blood plasma donated by people who have recovered from covid-19 will be used as a treatment for the infection in the US.184After a virus, your plasma contains antibodies used to help fight infection. Convalescent plasma is the antibody-rich plasma of someone who has recovered from a virus, in this case COVID-19.185
  • neutralizing antibody:中和抗体▽A neutralizing antibody (NAb) is an antibody that is responsible for defending cells from pathogens…. A neutralizing antibody can stop a pathogen from infecting the body by affecting how the molecules on the pathogen’s surface can enter cells in the body.186
  • ivermectin:イベルメクチン♢2015年のノーベル医学生理学賞を受賞した大村智氏が土壌の微生物から分離したアベルメクチンという物質からできた薬▽Health authorities in Australia have warned the public against trying to treat coronavirus at home…. The warning comes after a study found that the drug Ivermectin, which is usually used to treat head lice, stops coronavirus growing in cell culture.187

医療現場・介護現場

  • PPE (personal protective equipment)個人防護具▽Six months into the Covid-19 crisis, there is still a dire shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) for our health-care workers, particularly those on the front lines of the coronavirus pandemic.188Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects the user against health or safety risks at work. It includes different types of respiratory protective equipment (RPE), such as masks and respirators.189
  • healthcare system under pressure:医療現場のひっ迫▽Northern Ireland’s chief medical officer, Dr Michael McBride, warned that the virus will put the healthcare system under pressure.190Health workers warn of chaos on the wards as the healthcare system strains under the pressure of an escalating outbreak.191In March and April, New York’s healthcare system was under extreme pressure from the coronavirus outbreak.192
  • aerosol-generating procedures:エアロゾルが発生する処置▽If aerosol generating procedures are necessary for dental care, use four-handed dentistry, high evacuation suction and dental dams to minimize droplet spatter and aerosols.193
  • nursing home {care home} {aged care facility}:老人ホーム▽Of the country’s nearly 130,000 coronavirus deaths, more than 40 percent have been residents or employees of nursing homes and long-term-care facilities.194During the coronavirus pandemic more people died with the virus in Scotland’s care homes than in its hospitals.195

教育・経済

  • school shutdown:学校閉鎖▽Look at what St Albans children have been up to during coronavirus school shutdown.196Already in the South and the Midwest, students and teachers have brought the virus to school with them, triggering quarantines, delayed openings and temporary shutdowns as positive tests roll in.197
  • online class {remote class} {distance learning}:オンライン授業、遠隔授業▽In order to keep COVID-19 from spreading, SUU has made the difficult decision to join the other colleges and universities in Utah and extend online/remote class instruction through the summer semester.198When Hong Kong student Wendy received a question from her geography teacher during an online class, she scrambled to unmute her mother’s cellphone, but the screen kept freezing. She had already used up her monthly five gigabytes data allowance.199She said: “Now that dance schools are closed and children aren’t getting access to dance and physical activities, and at a time when people are losing their jobs, I’ve decided to put all my dance classes online for free.” … The first online class Belle posted has almost reached 5,000 views.200Students at Saudi Arabia’s public schools will be educated via distance learning as a precaution against coronavirus for the first seven weeks of the new term.201
  • face-to-face class:体面授業▽He said: “Whilst on-line teaching is certainly better than no teaching, it can never replace face to face class room education.”202During the COVID-19 lockdown, many instructors have been rushing to switch their face-to-face class into online formats.203
  • in-person classes:体面授業▽In-person class size would be limited to fewer than 50 students per class, or 50 per cent of classroom capacity, whichever is smaller. A majority of in-person classes would entail fewer than 25 students, and any classes of 50 students or more would offer a virtual format.204
  • staggered (classes {schedules}):時差(授業)、分散授業▽Many children are set to go back to school next week under precautionary measures such as staggered classes. Tokyo Governor Yuriko Koike has warned against complacency and said everyone had to get used to a “new normal” of teleworking and staggered commutes until a vaccine or treatment is developed.205Along with reinforcing hand-washing techniques and special attention to disinfecting common surfaces, the guidelines suggest that face coverings be used and staggered schedules should be set up to help to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus.206
  • staggered (work hours):時差(勤務、出勤)▽Foye … sees staggered work hours and days as “part of the answer” to congestion, citing the 1918 response.207Marsh & McLennan Cos … said it instructed office leaders to make plans for staggered teams at the office and to determine whether commuters should travel at off-peak times.208
  • rota basis(英){roster basis}:交代制、シフト制、分散登校型▽English secondary schools in local lockdown areas could have to use a “rota system” to limit the number of teenagers attending at any one time, with teachers and pupils required to wear face masks in communal areas, according to new government guidance.209Instead, students will likely attend school “on a roster” basis from some time next term.211We reserve the right to recall staff from furlough, and indeed some teams may be furloughed on a rota basis (with a minimum period of 3-weeks on furlough) if this is possible.212
  • communal spaces:共有空間▽Close communal spaces, such as break rooms, if possible; otherwise, stagger use and clean and disinfect in between uses.213
  • physical barriers {plastic screens}:(飛沫対策)アクリル板、ビニールパーテーション▽Protect your staff and customers against virus infection with protective screens, dividing protection walls and standalone screen guards. Sponmech are now offering high-quality protective plastic screening to shield and divide people from the risks of catching coronavirus via droplets in the air.214Install physical barriers, such as sneeze guards and partitions, in areas where it is difficult for individuals to remain at least 6 feet apart (e.g., reception desks).215
  • floor sticker {floor graphics} {floor signs} {floor tape}:フロア誘導シール▽Council workers had hurriedly installed a one-way system in the market alleyways and laid floor stickers to encourage shoppers to keep 2 metres apart.216Some stores have installed wipe and hand sanitizer stations and put colored tape on floors to help customers keep their distance at checkout lines.217
  • hospitality sector:接客業▽Hodes points out that the tourism and hospitality sector has been one of the biggest casualties of the Covid-19 pandemic.218The guidance is aimed at business owners, operators and workers in hotels, indoor and outdoor attractions and experiences, as well as hospitality businesses.219
  • travel sector:旅行業▽Abta’s call for more support for the travel sector comes amid a string of closures and redundancies across the industry, from airlines to tour operators, in what would traditionally be peak travel season.220
  • teleworking {telecommuting} {working from home} {work remotely}:在宅勤務▽Where breathless advocates consider telecommuting the best thing to happen to work-life balance since casual Fridays, human resources departments see goofing off on the clock.221As spring sprung in North America, Facebook, Google and others told staff they could telework for the rest of the year.222The outbreak of COVID-19 saw governments around the world ordering employers to let their staff work from home wherever it was possible to do so.223Once governments realised the scale of the coronavirus outbreak, businesses were asked, and then told, to allow staff to work remotely where possible.224
  • furlough:一時帰休、自宅待機▽According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, 218 American colleges and universities have laid off, furloughed, or not renewed contracts with workers because of Covid-19 — impacting at least 50,904 employees.225What is the furlough scheme? If your employer has been forced to close temporarily due to coronavirus, it can claim back part of your wages from the government.226The U.K. is extending a worker furlough program that pays people idled by the COVID-19 pandemic up to around $3,088 a month, as Chancellor of the Exchequer Rishi Sunak says the program will now run through the end of October.227
  • lay off {layoff}:解雇する{解雇}▽A second wave of coronavirus layoffs is happening, even for workers who have returned to their jobs after losing them when coronavirus first hit the economy.228
  • job cut {job losses}:雇用{人員}削減、人員整理▽A swathe of businesses have announced job cuts as the economy has contracted sharply due to the pandemic, opting not to furlough those workers instead.229Overall, the official UK unemployment rate for the three months to April held steady at 3.9% as the massive state wage support in place stopped job losses…. Tej Parikh, chief economist at the Institute of Directors, agreed: “The furlough scheme continues to hold off the bulk of job losses, but unemployment is likely to surge in the months ahead.”230
  • shorter hours {shorten hours}:営業時間短縮{短縮する}▽And grocery and discount stores continue to shorten hours with several chains now dedicating time in the morning for seniors, pregnant women and high-risk groups to shop.231The shorter hours will also allow staff to clean the shop while there are no customers present – helping fight off the spread of coronavirus..232
  • request for shorter hours {for reduced hours} {for shorter business hours} {for shorter opening hours} {request for ~ to shorten business hours {opening hours} {request for ~ to operate on reduced hours}:営業時間短縮要請▽Tokyo will extend until Sept 15 its request for establishments serving alcohol and karaoke venues in the heart of the capital to shorten business hours as part of efforts to stem the spread of the coronavirus, Gov Yuriko Koike said Thursday.233Restaurants and other businesses in Tokyo’s 23 wards will continue to be asked to shorten business hours through Sept. 15 by the Tokyo metropolitan government.234
  • dedicated hour:(高齢者、障害者、妊婦ら)優先時間帯▽The Iceland store in West Belfast has set aside an hour for elderly shoppers…. The store was asking shoppers to “respect the dedicated hour”…. The building society Nationwide is also trialling opening its branches one hour early for older people and those with underlying health conditions.235Co-op is similarly introducing a dedicated hour at the start of opening for those at high risk, and their carers.236
  • V-shaped recoveryV字型景気回復、V字回復▽There is much talk — almost all of it the product of wishful thinking — about a V-shaped recovery from the pandemic. The one place it is certainly happening is in the world’s bourses. 237

ストレス、風評

  • stay-at-home fatigue {quarantine fatigue} {isolation fatigue}:自粛疲れ{隔離疲れ}▽My concern is that there has become a high level of quarantine or stay-at-home fatigue…. I wonder if people realize that this is a new normal.238
  • COVID fatigue:コロナ疲れ▽After months of social distancing, lockdowns, favorite businesses being close, and a lot fewer places to go for recreation, meals, and entertainment, are you feeling “COVID fatigue”?239
  • stigma:汚名▽Stigma is discrimination against an identifiable group of people, a place, or a nation. Stigma is associated with a lack of knowledge about how COVID-19 spreads, a need to blame someone, fears about disease and death, and gossip that spreads rumors and myths.240
  • reputational damage:風評被害▽A hospital in Japan’s Hyogo prefecture said patients, staff and families were enduring psychological, economic and reputational damage because of health rumours, with some refused transport and other services, or told not to come to work.241Among the potential risks that can impact a company, the risk of reputational damage generally ranks at or near the top of the list. With reputation one of a company’s biggest assets, any loss thereof could lead to a serious downturn in fortunes, perhaps even a cessation of business in worst-case scenarios.242

抗体・免疫

  • B-cells, T-cellsB細胞、T細胞▽Disease-fighting antibodies, as well as immune cells called B cells and T cells that are capable of recognizing the virus, appear to persist months after infections have resolved — an encouraging echo of the body’s enduring response to other viruses.243B-cells fight bacteria and viruses by making Y-shaped proteins called antibodies, which are specific to each pathogen and are able to lock onto the surface of an invading cell and mark it for destruction by other immune cells…. There are two main types of T-cells: helper T-cells and killer T-cells. Helper T-cells stimulate B-cells to make antibodies and help killer cells develop. Killer T-cells directly kill cells that have already been infected by a foreign invader.244
  • antibody:抗体▽Different types of antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to ‘foreign’ invaders in the body, such as viruses, and these antibodies stay in the body after the infection has ended. Antibodies are quite specific to the type of virus and can provide immunity against catching the virus again.245
  • immunity:免疫▽Optimism on Covid-19 immunity climbs as studies show antibodies protect and T-cells last longer…. An encouraging body of evidence has found that T and B cells remain in the blood even once antibodies fade.246
  • innate immunity:自然免疫▽Innate immunity consists of a series of non-specific mechanisms that prevents viruses and bacteria (pathogens) from invading the body. It includes physical barriers, such as the skin, and the cell linings of internal body parts, such as airways and lungs. The innate immune system also consists of several types of specialised cells and signalling chemicals.247
  • adaptive {acquired} immunity:獲得免疫▽Adaptive immunity (also known as ‘acquired’ immunity) describes how the body builds immunological memory — so that if the person is exposed to the same infection again the body’s response is enhanced. This is the basis for immunisation with vaccines.248Instead you need the adaptive immune response. This includes cells that produce targeted antibodies that can stick to the virus in order to stop it and T cells that can attack just the cells infected with the virus, called the cellular response. 249
  • herd immunity:集団免疫▽Levels of herd immunity within the UK may already be high enough to prevent a second wave of coronavirus, a new study by Oxford University scientists suggests.250

旅行・渡航

  • travel restrictions:移動制限、渡航制限▽While all of the Northeast and most of the mid-Atlantic states have implemented statewide travel restrictions, 33 states, including two of the biggest, California and Texas, have no such restrictions.251Ireland may introduce further travel restrictions for countries with a very high instance of COVID-19, Foreign Minister Simon Coveney said on Wednesday after the government lifted its 14-day quarantine requirement for 15 European countries.252“State, local, and territorial governments may have travel restrictions in place, including testing requirements, stay-at-home orders, and quarantine requirements upon arrival,” the CDC’s Aug. 21 guidance says.253
  • self-isolate:自己隔離する▽Coronavirus regulations mean that you must self-isolate for 14 days when you arrive in the UK. This applies to UK residents and visitors to the UK.254
  • quarantine:隔離(期間)(する)、検疫▽These [health measures] can include a requirement to self-isolate, quarantine or undergo testing for coronavirus, or even restrictions on entry.255Travellers from more than 50 countries deemed ”low risk” do not have to quarantine, although some of these countries impose restrictions on travellers entering from the UK…. France and the Netherlands were added to the quarantine list on 15 August, along with Monaco, Malta, Turks and Caicos, and Aruba…. Travellers could find they also have to enter quarantine when they arrive in another country.256Given the global distribution of the virus and working from the principle of precaution, it is necessary that anyone coming from abroad observe a 14-day quarantine period.257
  • entry restriction:入国制限▽As of April 6, there are no entry restrictions in Ireland, according to the Irish government.258
  • entry ban:入国禁止▽The country said it would add 18 countries to its entry ban from July 1, according to a June 29 posting on the foreign ministry website. That brings the total number of countries subject to Japan’s entry ban to 129.259

ワクチン

  • mRNA vaccineRNAワクチン▽Moderna’s messenger RNA vaccine, on the other hand, is completely new and revolutionary to say the least. It uses a sequence of genetic RNA material produced in a lab that, when injected into your body, must invade your cells and hijack your cells’ protein-making machinery called ribosomes to produce the viral components that subsequently train your immune system to fight the virus.260
  • DNA vaccineDNAワクチン▽In contrast to the more widespread “conventional” vaccines which use a whole pathogen or fragment, a DNA vaccine involves the injection of a small part of the virus’s genetic code (DNA or RNA) to stimulate immune response in a patient without an infection.261
  • inactivated vaccine:不活性化ワクチン▽The Chinese biopharmaceutical has developed an inactivated vaccine that uses a non-infectious version of the virus to provoke an immune response.262
  • inactivated virus:不活性化されたウイルス
  • attenuated virus:弱毒化されたウイルス
  • placebo:プラシーボ(偽薬)
  • dose:(薬の)1回分▽Moderna’s vaccine requires two doses given four weeks apart.263The vaccine is administered in two doses spaced 21 days apart.264

  • antibody-dependent enhanced (ADE):抗体依存性感染増強▽No antibody-dependent enhanced disease events were reported.265|“In particular, NVAX disclosed new non-human primate (NHP) challenge data that reaffirmed our confidence in the strong immune response expected with ‘2373 to correlate with long-term disease protection and minimized risk of antibody-dependent enhanced disease (ADE) or vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD)” the analyst commented.266

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