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コロナの英語 表現・用例集(COVID-19)

時事英語
スポンサーリンク

新型コロナの英語、分かっているようで分からないこともあるかもしれません。この際、きちんと、コロナ用語を押さえておきたい。あれは英語で言うとどうなんだろう、というときに調べやすいサイトはないだろうか。用例も見たい。こんな要望に応えます。

既にコロナ用語集は他にもありますが、この記事には、たくさんの用語・用例を集めています。

用語・表現リストは枠で囲みます。補足説明はダイヤ「♢」の後に、用例は三角「▽」の後に掲載します。入れ替え可能な単語・語句は波括弧{}で示します。複数の用例がある場合は縦の直線「|」で区切りを示します。用例は信頼のおける報道機関や保健当局などのウエブサイトから引用しています。出典は脚注をご覧ください。目次はカテゴリー分類を示しますので、調べたい用語を探す手がかりとなりますが、検索する方が早いかもしれません。

病気・ウイルス

  • COVID-19:病名、新型コロナウイルス感染症♢名前の由来:coronavirus disease 2019▽The new proof comes from a 33-year-old man in Hong Kong who first caught COVID-19 in March.[efn_note]Goodman, B. (2020, August 24). Study Confirms It’s Possible to Catch COVID Twice. Web MD. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200824/study-confirms-its-possible-to-catch-covid-twice[/efn_note]The vast majority — perhaps 80% or more — of people who come down with Covid-19, especially those under 50, will suffer symptoms that are no more serious than a bad cold or a mild flu and will be better within two weeks.[efn_note]Hochman, M., Wang, M., & Butler, K. (2020, March 20). A new self-triage tool can help you decide if you need medical care for Covid-19. STAT. Retrieved from https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/20/self-triage-tool-covid-19/[/efn_note]
  • the novel {new} coronavirus:新型コロナウイルス♢「novel」や「new」は当初に比べると省かれることが多くなっている▽As many as 25 percent of people infected with the new coronavirus may not show symptoms, the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warns.[efn_note]Mandavilli, A. (2020, July 9). Infected but Feeling Fine: The Unwitting Coronavirus Spreaders. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/31/health/coronavirus-asymptomatic-transmission.html[/efn_note]
  • SARS-CoV-2:ウイルス名、新型コロナウイルス感染症を引き起こすウイルスの名前♢名前の由来:severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 22002年~2004年の SARS を引き起こしたウイルスはSARS-CoV-1またはSARS-CoVと呼ばれる)▽SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes COVID-19.[efn_note]Universities in Nottingham. (2020, April 24). Universities in Nottingham to play a key role in the development of a potential DNA vaccine against COVID-19. Retrieved from https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/news/covid19-vaccine[/efn_note]

Sars-Cov-2 coronavirus=コロナウイルスの一種です。Coronavirus名前の由来はOxfordのオンライン辞書「Lexicoに、「1960s from corona + virus (with reference to the appearance of the virus, reminiscent of the solar corona, when studied through an electron microscope)」という説明があります。電子顕微鏡で観察すると、コロナウイルスは太陽コロナに似ていることから、このように名付けられたということです。英語で「corona」は「光冠、光環」を意味します。

下は、SAR-CoV-2ウイルスの写真です。

(Image by NIAID at https://flickr.com/photos/54591706@N02/49534865371/. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.)[efn_note] https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Novel_Coronavirus_SARS-CoV-2.jpg[/efn_note]

下の太陽コロナの写真と比べてください。

(Image by Luc Viatour / https://Lucnix.be/. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.)[efn_note] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Solar_eclipse_1999_4_NR.jpg[/efn_note]

ところで、今回の新型コロナウイルス発見以前に分かっていたコロナウイルスは全部で6種類です。そのうち4種類は風邪を引き起こすウイルスで、2種類は2002年~2004年の SARS を引き起こしたウイルスと2012年に報告されたMERSの原因であるウイルスです。[efn_note] https://www.niid.go.jp/niid/ja/kansennohanashi/9303-coronavirus.html[/efn_note]

コロナウイルスの形は球形で、表面には突起が見られます。突起は英語でspikeと言います。突起はヒト細胞側の受容体と結合し、これを足場として細胞の中に入り込むことで一連の感染過程が始まります。この説明を英語で読もうと思ったら無料で読めるオンライン記事はたくさんありますが、分かりやすい記事の一例はこれです。

ウイルスの構造を図で見ましょう。

(SARS- CoV 2 Structure. Contributed by Rohan Bir Singh, MD; Made with Biorender.com. Distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.)[efn_note] https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plik:Struktura_SARS-CoV_2.jpg[/efn_note]

ちなみに、石鹸など界面活性剤がウイルスを洗い流すのに効果がある理由は、ウイルスを覆っている膜(membrane)に含まれる油脂(lipids)に作用するからです。[efn_note]https://virologydownunder.com/why-does-soap-work-so-well-on-sars-cov-2/[/efn_note] 油汚れを落とすには石鹸などが有効ですから、うなずけますね。

  • spike:突起▽The mutation, named D614G, increased the number of “spikes” on the coronavirus — which is the part that gives it its distinctive shape. Those spikes are what allow the virus to bind to and infect cells.[efn_note]Reuters. (2020, June 15). Mutation in new coronavirus increases chance of infection: study. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-infectivity/mutation-in-new-coronavirus-increases-chance-of-infection-study-idUSKBN23M1M9[/efn_note]
  • variant:変異種、変異株▽Officials are deploying surge testing in parts of south London after detecting dozens of cases of the South African variant, which appears to be more resistant to current vaccines.[efn_note]Skopeliti, C. (2021, April 13). Covid: surge testing deployed in south London as South African variant cases rise. Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2021/apr/12/surge-testing-deployed-in-south-london-as-south-african-covid-variant-cases-rise?utm_term=1641a4687c73435b2a8df64bc84d53b0&utm_campaign=GuardianTodayUK&utm_source=esp&utm_medium=Email&CMP=GTUK_email[/efn_note] | People infected with the more contagious coronavirus variant first identified in the United Kingdom did not experience more severe symptoms and were not at higher risk of death, according to a new study published Monday.[efn_note]Chow, D. (2021, April 13). U.K. variant isn’t linked to more severe disease or death, study finds. NBC News. Retrieved from https://www.nbcnews.com/science/science-news/uk-variant-isnt-linked-severe-disease-death-study-finds-rcna658[/efn_note]
  • Delta variant:デルタ株▽The World Health Organization says the Delta variant, also known as B.1.617.2, has spread to at least 85 countries since it was first identified in India last fall.[efn_note]FoxTyk, M. (2021, July 1). Here’s what is known about the Delta variant of coronavirus. CNN. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2021/06/30/health/delta-variant-covid-what-known/index.html/[/efn_note]
  • strain:種(しゅ)、菌株▽New York Governor Andrew Cuomo on Friday pointed to research showing that strains of the novel coronavirus entered his state from Europe, not China, and said that travel bans enacted by U.S. President Donald Trump were too late to halt its spread.[efn_note]Layne, N., & Resnick-Ault, J. (2020, April 25). Coronavirus came to New York from Europe, not China – governor. Reuters. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/healthcare-coronavirus-usa-new-york/coronavirus-came-to-new-york-from-europe-not-china-governor-idUKKCN2262NJ[/efn_note]Since the emergence of the new coronavirus, called SARS-CoV-2, several researchers have proposed that there is more than one strain, and that mutations have led to changes in how infectious and deadly it is. However, opinions are divided.[efn_note]Hewings-Martin, Y. (2020, May 22). Is there more than one strain of the new coronavirus? Medical New Today. Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/is-there-more-than-one-strain-of-the-new-coronavirus[/efn_note]
  • mutation:(遺伝子)変異▽Researchers at DeCode genetics have found forty mutations of the coronavirus in Iceland alone; one individual had been infected by two variants at the same time.[efn_note]Gunnlaugsson, D. (2020, March 25). Iceland has good and bad news about the coronavirus. The Spectator. Retrieved from https://www.spectator.co.uk/article/iceland-has-good-and-bad-news-about-the-coronavirus[/efn_note]

症状

症状に関しては、アメリカのCDC(疾病管理予防センター)のウエブサイト等を参考にしています。

  • fever or chills:発熱、悪寒、寒気
  • cough:咳
  • shortness of breath or difficulty breathing:息切れ、息苦しさ
  • fatigue:倦怠感
  • muscle or body aches:筋肉など体の痛み
  • headache:頭痛
  • new loss of taste or smell:味覚・嗅覚異常
  • sore throat:咽頭痛
  • runny nose or congestion:鼻水、鼻づまり
  • nausea or vomiting:吐き気
  • diarrhea:下痢
  • severe case {serious case}:重症▽Being obese reduces the chance of survival in severe cases of Covid-19.[efn_note]Universities in Edinburgh (2020). Obesity hampers Covid-19 recovery prospects, study finds. Retrieved from https://www.ed.ac.uk/covid-19-response/latest-news/obesity-hampers-covid-19-recovery-prospects-study[/efn_note]One in five people around the world could be at risk of developing a severe case of Covid-19, an international team of scientists has estimated.[efn_note]Taylor, C. (2020, June 16). One in five people worldwide is at risk of developing ‘severe’ cases of Covid-19, scientists claim. CNBC. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2020/06/16/one-in-five-people-worldwide-at-risk-of-severe-covid-19-study-says.html[/efn_note]Japanese authorities said they had confirmed 389 new cases in the capital, nearly two-thirds of whom were aged under 40. The number of serious cases rose from three to 24.[efn_note]Skopeliti, C., Davies, C., Marsh, S., Halliday, J., Sullivan, H., & Doherty, B. (2020, August 16). France infections accelerate; Spain to close nightclubs and ban public smoking – as it happened. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2020/aug/14/coronavirus-live-news-france-says-uk-quarantine-will-lead-to-reciprocal-measures-as-global-deaths-pass-750000?page=with:block-5f3632f38f086c0ded4f708e[/efn_note]
  • mild case:軽症▽Brazil’s health ministry recommended Wednesday using chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine to treat even mild cases of COVID-19, treatments President Jair Bolsonaro has pushed for despite a lack of conclusive evidence of their effectiveness.[efn_note]Medical Express. (2020, May 20). Brazil recommends chloroquine to treat even mild COVID-19 cases. Retrieved from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-05-brazil-chloroquine-mild-covid-cases.html[/efn_note]
  • mildly symptomatic case:軽症▽Health officials at the beginning of the pandemic had urged citizens to report even mildly symptomatic cases, which would then be taken to designated isolation hospitals across the country.[efn_note]Reuters. (2020, June 19). Egypt surpasses 50,000 confirmed coronavirus cases. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavirus-egypt/egypt-surpasses-50000-confirmed-coronavirus-cases-idUKKBN23P3M6?il=0[/efn_note]
  • mildly symptomatic patients:軽症者▽Based on the findings, they said “the loss of smell or taste is among the most common and persistent symptoms of mildly symptomatic patients with COVID-19.[efn_note]Strickland, H. (2020, July 5). Study Finds Some COVID Patients Will Not Regain Senses of Taste, Smell. Click Lancashire. Retrieved from https://clicklancashire.com/2020/07/04/study-finds-some-covid-patients-will-not-regain-senses-of.html[/efn_note]
  • asymptomatic case:無症状▽What’s especially puzzling is why these two groups—presymptomatic transmitters and asymptomatic cases—appear so frequently.[efn_note]Rechards, S. E. (2020, July 22). Why do asymptomatic COVID-19 cases even happen? National Geographic. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/07/why-do-asymptomatic-coronavirus-cases-even-happen-cvd/[/efn_note]
  • asymptomatic patients:無症状者 ▽Because transmission by asymptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 may be a key factor in community spread, population-based surveillance and isolation of asymptomatic patients may be required.[efn_note]Ramesh, S. (2020, July 8). South Korean study finds asymptomatic Covid patients spread virus similar to symptomatic ones. MSN. Retrieved from https://www.msn.com/en-in/autos/other/south-korean-study-finds-asymptomatic-covid-patients-spread-virus-similar-to-symptomatic-ones/ar-BB17GfqX[/efn_note]

感染のメカニズム

WHO=世界保健機関によると、感染経路にはcontact(接触)、droplet(飛沫)airborne(空中浮遊)、fomite(媒介物)、fecal-oral(糞口)、bloodborne(血液伝播)、mother-to-child(母子)、and animal-to-human transmission(動物からヒトへ)があるということです。

  • exposure:曝露、さらされること▽Exposure to the common cold could provide some measure of immunity to Covid-19, a new study suggests.[efn_note]Gulland, A. (2020, June 30). Exposure to common cold could provide immunity to Covid-19. The Telegraph. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/science-and-disease/exposure-common-cold-could-provide-immunity-covid-19/[/efn_note]According to LinkedIn’s latest Workforce Confidence Index, 60 per cent of UK retail employees are worried about exposure to others who are not taking safety guidelines and precautions seriously when returning to work.[efn_note]Jahshan, E. (2020, August 19). 60% of UK retail staff worried about Covid-19 exposure. Retail Gazette. Retrieved from https://www.retailgazette.co.uk/blog/2020/08/60-of-uk-retail-staff-worried-about-covid-19-exposure/[/efn_note]
  • spread :広がる(動詞)、感染の広がり(名詞)▽“COVID-19 spreads mainly through close contact from person to person,” Haynes said.[efn_note]Chappell, B., & Aubrey, A. (2020, May 22). CDC Advice On Surface Spread Of COVID-19 ‘Has Not Changed,’ Agency Says. NPR. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2020/05/22/861193550/advice-on-surface-spread-of-covid-19-has-not-changed-cdc-says[/efn_note]A hospital trust has reminded people to take ‘positive steps’ to slow the spread of Covid-19, after fears that asymptomatic carriers may be unknowingly infecting more vulnerable people.[efn_note]Gittins, H. (2020, August 27). ‘We must all work together to stop the spread of Covid-19’ – Wakefield hospital trust urges people to continue following social distancing guidelines. Wakefield Express. Retrieved from https://www.wakefieldexpress.co.uk/health/coronavirus/we-must-all-work-together-stop-spread-covid-19-wakefield-hospital-trust-urges-people-continue-following-social-distancing-guidelines-2954344[/efn_note]
  • incubation period:潜伏期間▽The “incubation period” is the time between being exposed to the virus and the onset of symptoms.[efn_note]The Conversation. (2020, April 13). How long are you infectious when you have coronavirus? Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/how-long-are-you-infectious-when-you-have-coronavirus-135295[/efn_note]
  • asymptomatic:発症しない無症状感染状態を指す▽While scientists still don’t know whether asymptomatic people are as contagious as those who display symptoms, there are still many ways in which they can pass on Covid-19.[efn_note]Cox, D. (2020, May 30). Could nearly half of those with Covid-19 have no idea they are infected? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/30/could-nearly-half-of-those-with-covid-19-have-no-idea-they-are-infected[/efn_note]
  • asymptomatic transmission {asymptomatic infection} {asymptomatic spread}:無症状感染者からの感染▽The first identified case of asymptomatic transmission of Covid-19 occurred in early January, when a traveller from Wuhan passed on the virus to five family members in different parts of the city of Anyang.[efn_note]Cox, D. (2020, May 30). Could nearly half of those with Covid-19 have no idea they are infected? The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/30/could-nearly-half-of-those-with-covid-19-have-no-idea-they-are-infected[/efn_note]
  • pre-symptomatic:発症前の無症状感染状態を指す▽Researchers at the University of Padova and at Imperial College London have published an article in the journal Nature suggesting asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic people are an important factor in the transmission of COVID-19.[efn_note]Schieszer, J. (2020, August 1). COVID-19: New insights, monitoring device. Senior Voice. Retrieved from https://www.seniorvoicealaska.com/story/2020/08/01/health/covid-19-new-insights-monitoring-device/2402.html[/efn_note]
  • contact transmission:接触感染▽However, although airborne transmission is possible, large droplet or contact transmission is probably responsible for the vast majority of disease transmission.[efn_note]Morgenstern, J. (2020, April 6). Aerosols, Droplets, and Airborne Spread: Everything you could possibly want to know. First 10 EM. Retrieved from https://first10em.com/aerosols-droplets-and-airborne-spread/[/efn_note]
  • respiratory droplets:飛沫▽The virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads from person to person in respiratory droplets released when someone with the virus coughs, sneezes or talks.[efn_note]Marshall, W. (2020, June 5). Can COVID-19 (coronavirus) spread through food, water, surfaces and pets? Mayo Clilnic: COVID-19 Updates. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/expert-answers/can-coronavirus-spread-food-water/faq-20485479[/efn_note]
  • contaminated surfaces:ウイルスで汚染された物体や表面(ドアノブなど)▽Fears about catching the coronavirus from contaminated surfaces have prompted many of us to spend the past few months wiping down groceries, leaving packages unopened and stressing about touching elevator buttons.[efn_note]Parker-Pope, T. (2020, May 28). What’s the Risk of Catching Coronavirus From a Surface? The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/28/well/live/whats-the-risk-of-catching-coronavirus-from-a-surface.html[/efn_note]
  • aerosols:微小飛沫(エアロゾル)♢大気中に浮遊する汚染物質などの粒子▽WHO recommends taking specific precautions against aerosols only in hospital settings during specific procedures such as inserting a breathing tube into a patient.[efn_note]Huang, P. (2020, July 9). WHO: Airborne Transmission Plays Limited Role In Coronavirus Spread. NPR. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2020/07/09/889526937/who-report-aerosols-not-likely-to-be-significant-source-of-covid-19-transmission[/efn_note]
  • airborne transmission:空気感染▽Professor Benedetta Allegranzi, technical lead for infection prevention and control, said the possibility of airborne transmission in “crowded, closed, poorly ventilated” settings could not be ruled out.[efn_note]Bowden, E. (2020, August 7). Coronavirus Ireland: WHO now studying ‘emerging evidence’ Covid-19 could be spread through air. MSN News. Retrieved from https://www.msn.com/en-ie/news/newsireland/coronavirus-ireland-who-now-studying-emerging-evidence-covid-19-could-be-spread-through-air/ar-BB16ubQg?li=BBr5KbJ[/efn_note]
  • pathogen:病原体▽China has repeatedly found traces of the pathogen on packaging and food, raising fears that imported items are linked to recent virus resurgences in Beijing and the port city of Dalian.[efn_note]Bloomberg Law. (2020). Mystery Grows Over Virus Spread Via Food Packaging (Correct). Retrieved from https://news.bloomberglaw.com/health-law-and-business/mystery-grows-over-virus-spread-via-contaminated-food-packaging[/efn_note]

コロナ禍

「コロナ禍」という日本語表現に関してはNHKのウエブサイトに説明があります。

  • the novel {new} coronavirus pandemic:新型コロナウイルスの世界的感染拡大▽Canada and the U.S. are working out the details of a mutual ban on non-essential travel between the two countries amid the new coronavirus pandemic.[efn_note]CBS News. (2020, March 18). U.S. and Canada reportedly set to partially close their border. Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/live-updates/coronavirus-disease-covid-19-latest-news-2020-03-17/[/efn_note]
  • the coronavirus pandemic:新型コロナウイルスの世界的感染拡大♢「novel」や「new」は当初に比べると省かれることが多くなっている▽Once the coronavirus pandemic is over, we must work out how to stop the spread of poor information that has helped make a bad situation that much worse.[efn_note]New Scientist. (2020, May 6). Covid-19 shows why an infodemic of bad science must never happen again. Retrieved from https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg24632812-500-covid-19-shows-why-an-infodemic-of-bad-science-must-never-happen-again/[/efn_note]
  • the novel {new} coronavirus crisis:新型コロナウイルス危機▽Your local bookshop may already have an online relief fund set up to support its business and laid-off employees during the novel coronavirus crisis.[efn_note]Debczak, M. (2020, April 1). 5 Ways to Help Independent Bookstores During the Coronavirus Crisis. MSN News. Retrieved from https://www.msn.com/en-us/entertainment/books/5-ways-to-help-independent-bookstores-during-the-coronavirus-crisis/ar-BB121LkH[/efn_note]
  • the coronavirus crisis:新型コロナウイルス危機▽For better or worse, and regardless of whether such measures are justified by the coronavirus crisis, the Western world is heading for the largest crackdown on civil liberties it’s ever seen.[efn_note]Bambrough, B. (2020, March 23). Coronavirus COVID-19 Will Go Down In History As The Social Media And Bitcoin Pandemic. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/billybambrough/2020/03/23/coronavirus-covid-19-will-go-down-in-history-as-the-social-media-and-bitcoin-pandemic/#9eead403c10f[/efn_note]
  • the coronavirus lockdown:新型コロナウイルスによる封鎖▽Non-essential retailers are being allowed to trade once again after the government eased the coronavirus lockdown restrictions.[efn_note]Harrogate Borough Council. (2020, June 15). Council support for the reopening of the high street. Retrieved from https://www.harrogate.gov.uk/news/article/215/council_support_for_the_reopening_of_the_high_street[/efn_note]
  • the COVID-19 pandemic {the COVID pandemic}:新型コロナウイルスの世界的感染拡大♢「-19」は省かれることもある▽The kindness of volunteers who have helped vulnerable residents during the Covid pandemic is being recognised.[efn_note]County Echo. (2020, August 24). Covid crisis ‘has brought out the very best in Pembrokeshire people’. Retrieved from http://www.countyecho.co.uk/article.cfm?id=130455&headline=Covid%20crisis%20%27has%20brought%20out%20the%20very%20best%20in%20Pembrokeshire%20people%27&sectionIs=news&searchyear=2020[/efn_note]
  • the COVID-19 crisis {the COVID crisis}:新型コロナウイルス感染症危機▽Airlines across the world are being crippled by the Covid crisis.[efn_note]Strickland, J. (2020, August 24). Covid Crisis Hits Low Cost Carriers But Wizz Air Seizes The Opportunity. Forbes. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/johnstrickland/2020/08/24/covid-crisis-hits-low-cost-carriers-but-wizz-air-seizes-the-opportunity/#32b2df0760ca[/efn_note]
  • the COVID-19 lockdown {the COVID lockdown}:新型コロナウイルスによる封鎖▽Half of the UK population reported more disturbed sleep than usual under the COVID-19 lockdown, but the opposite is likely to have been true for wildlife.[efn_note]Shannon, G. (2020, June 25). Noisy humans make birds sleep with one eye open – but lockdown offered a reprieve. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/noisy-humans-make-birds-sleep-with-one-eye-open-but-lockdown-offered-a-reprieve-141000[/efn_note]Devon and Cornwall Police saw a rise in domestic violence incidents reported since the start of the Covid lockdown compared to the same period last year, new figures have revealed.[efn_note]BBC Radio Cornwall. (2020, August 19). Rise in domestic violence reports since lockdown start. BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/localnews/2640194-Plymouth/0[/efn_note]

感染状況

  • case:症例▽Nearly all Victoria’s second-wave coronavirus cases can be traced back to a single quarantine hotel, an inquiry heard today.[efn_note]Moore, C. (2020, August 18). REVEALED: 90% of Victoria’s coronavirus cases can be traced back to just ONE hotel – after COVID-19 spread to staff during the bungled quarantine program. Mail Online. Retrieved from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8637605/90-Victorias-coronavirus-cases-traced-just-ONE-hotel.html[/efn_note]
  • epidemiology / epidemiologically:疫学 / 疫学的に▽Project OASIS is supported by JHub for “coordination and coherence of the Covid-19 symptom tracker apps; including facilitating the secure transfer of relevant symptom and epidemiology data from the third party Covid-19 apps to the NHSx datastore.”[efn_note]SC Media. (2020, May 20). Updated Strategic Command’s jHub aids NHSx securing Covid-19 symptom data. Retrieved from https://www.scmagazineuk.com/updated-strategic-commands-jhub-aids-nhsx-securing-covid-19-symptom-data/article/1683685[/efn_note]By July 13 – A total of 46 people have been epidemiologically linked to the Stamford Plaza outbreak are diagnosed with COVID-19.[efn_note]Moore, C. (2020, August 18). REVEALED: 90% of Victoria’s coronavirus cases can be traced back to just ONE hotel – after COVID-19 spread to staff during the bungled quarantine program. Mail Online. Retrieved from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8637605/90-Victorias-coronavirus-cases-traced-just-ONE-hotel.html[/efn_note]
  • Infection:感染▽The country has so far registered a total of 161,253 infections.[efn_note]Business Recorder. (2020). Philippine reports 3,420 new coronavirus cases, 65 deaths. Retrieved from https://www.brecorder.com/news/40012359/philippine-reports-3420-new-coronavirus-cases-65-deaths[/efn_note]The risk of infection increases the closer you are to another person with the virus.[efn_note]Cabinet Office. (2020). Guidance: Staying safe outside your home. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/staying-safe-outside-your-home/staying-safe-outside-your-home[/efn_note]
  • confirmed:確認された▽The ministry confirmed 16 additional deaths and said the total number of confirmed cases had increased to 153,660, while confirmed deaths had reached 2,442.[efn_note]Skopeliti, C., Davies, C., Marsh, S., Halliday, J., Sullivan, H., & Doherty, B. (2020, August 16). France infections accelerate; Spain to close nightclubs and ban public smoking – as it happened. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2020/aug/14/coronavirus-live-news-france-says-uk-quarantine-will-lead-to-reciprocal-measures-as-global-deaths-pass-750000?page=with:block-5f364e838f08d485ec34a8e1[/efn_note]The surgeon, who works at Aintree Hospital, was diagnosed on Monday and is the fifth person from Liverpool confirmed to be infected with the virus.[efn_note]Hartley-Parkinson, R. (2020, March 11). Surgeon infected with coronavirus operated on people after failing to self-isolate after trip to Italy. Metro. Retrieved from https://metro.co.uk/2020/03/11/surgeon-infected-coronavirus-operated-people-failing-self-isolate-trip-italy-12379448/[/efn_note]
  • pandemic:世界的感染拡大♢「epidemic」、「epidemic」、「outbreak」、「cluster」の違いについてはアメリカCDCの説明が有益です。それによると、「epidemic」は通常予期されるレベル以上に感染症の症例が増加することで、「outbreak」もほぼ同様の意味ですが地理的に限定された地域における流行を指します。一方「pandemic」は複数の国・大陸に拡大し非常に多くの人が感染している状態を指す言葉です▽They say the closure of safari tourism, due to the coronavirus pandemic, is decimating the industry, and leading to an increase in poaching.[efn_note]BBC News. (2020, May 6). How the Covid-19 pandemic is threatening Africa’s wildlife. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-africa-52564615[/efn_note]
  • epidemic:流行、流行病、伝染病
  • outbreak:急激な発生
  • cluster:クラスター(集団、一団)▽New South Wales state struggled with a cluster of infections at an aged care facility, as parts of the country began easing distancing rules.[efn_note]Reuters. (2020, May 3). Australia fights COVID-19 clusters as parts of country ease restrictions. News Break. Retrieved from https://www.newsbreak.com/news/1558726962776/australia-fights-virus-clusters-as-parts-of-country-ease-restrictions[/efn_note]The local council is also advising people in the LU4 postcode area of the town to get tested after a cluster of new cases was discovered.[efn_note]ITV. (2020, July 23). Coronavirus deaths in the Anglia region continue to fall but ‘stay home’ warning in Luton. Retrieved from https://www.itv.com/news/anglia/2020-07-21/coronavirus-deaths-in-the-anglia-region-continue-to-fall-but-stay-home-warning-in-luton[/efn_note]
  • spread:流行、感染拡大▽Scientists in Wales will launch a study this week into whether mouthwash can be used to help prevent the spread of coronavirus.[efn_note]Express & Star. (2020, August 25). Study to find out whether mouthwash can reduce spread of Covid-19. Retrieved from https://www.expressandstar.com/news/uk-news/2020/08/25/study-to-find-out-whether-mouthwash-can-reduce-spread-of-covid-19/[/efn_note]
  • widespread {rampant}:蔓延している▽The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says your first step is to call your healthcare professional if you develop symptoms and have been in contact with a person known to have COVID-19 or traveled to an area where coronavirus is widespread.[efn_note]Rasbach, D. (2020, March 3). Should you be tested for COVID-19? Here’s what’s happening in Washington state. The Bellingham Herald. Retrieved from https://www.bellinghamherald.com/news/local/article240842831.html[/efn_note]|“If you look throughout the United States where coronavirus is rampant, you’ll find that it affects disadvantaged communities more than others,” said Salas.[efn_note]Lewis, B. (2020, April 23). ‘We want answers’ | South Bay tightens coronavirus restrictions as case numbers rise. CBS 8. Retrieved from https://www.cbs8.com/article/news/local/we-want-answers-south-bay-tightens-coronavirus-restrictions-as-case-numbers-rise/509-c17926ca-d930-480d-b57f-96cbdb186100[/efn_note]
  • local transmission:域内感染、市中感染▽The source of the outbreak has baffled health officials, who said they were confident there were was no local transmission of the virus in New Zealand for 102 days and that the family had not travelled overseas. [efn_note]The Telegraph. (2020). New Zealand investigating freight as possible source of Covid-19 outbreak. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/08/12/new-zealand-investigating-freight-source-covid-19-outbreak/[/efn_note]
  • locally transmitted:域内感染の▽Vietnam on Monday reported 11 new locally transmitted cases of the novel coronavirus, all linked to a hospital in the central province of Danang. [efn_note]Reuters. (2020). Vietnam reports 11 new locally transmitted COVID-19 cases linked to a hospital. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavirus-vietnam/vietnam-reports-11-new-locally-transmitted-covid-19-cases-linked-to-a-hospital-idUKKCN24S1EG[/efn_note]
  • reach the peak:ピークに達する▽All indications were that South Africa had reached the peak of Covid-19 infections. [efn_note]Reuters. (2020). Factbox: Latest on worldwide coronavirus spread. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-latest-factbox/factbox-latest-on-worldwide-coronavirus-spread-idUKKCN25C0A8[/efn_note]
  • increase:増加(する)▽The Philippines’ health ministry has reported 6,216 more coronavirus infections, the third-largest daily increase recorded in south-east Asia up to now, Reuters reports.[efn_note]Skopeliti, C., Davies, C., Marsh, S., Halliday, J., Sullivan, H., & Doherty, B. (2020, August 16). France infections accelerate; Spain to close nightclubs and ban public smoking – as it happened. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2020/aug/14/coronavirus-live-news-france-says-uk-quarantine-will-lead-to-reciprocal-measures-as-global-deaths-pass-750000?page=with:block-5f364e838f08d485ec34a8e1[/efn_note]
  • rise:増加(する)▽The Philippines on Monday reported its highest daily rise in confirmed infections at 6,958.[efn_note]Reuters. (2020, August 14). Philippines Confirms 6,216 New Coronavirus Cases, 16 Deaths. MSN. Retrieved from https://www.msn.com/en-au/lifestyle/wellbeing/philippines-confirms-6216-new-coronavirus-cases-16-deaths/ar-BB17X2w0 [/efn_note]
  • fall:減少(する)▽The number of daily deaths fell again on Friday to 605, the lowest figure since March 24, the health ministry said.[efn_note]Reuters. (2020). Spain sees slowing coronavirus toll, holds virtual Easter parades. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavirus-spain/spains-coronavirus-death-toll-curve-flattening-at-last-idUKKCN21S0ZB?feedType=RSS&feedName=worldNews[/efn_note]
  • surge:急増▽South Korea is closing schools in the Seoul metropolitan area as it copes with a nearly two-week surge in coronavirus infections.[efn_note]VOA News. (2020, August 25). COVID Surge in South Korea Prompts School Closures. Retrieved from https://www.voanews.com/covid-19-pandemic/covid-surge-south-korea-prompts-school-closures[/efn_note]
  • resurgence (動詞はresurge):再急増▽The latest figures have shown a possibly worrying resurgence in infections.[efn_note]Lintern, S. (2020, March 24). Coronavirus: Second wave of infections in Asia makes repeat surge of disease ‘inevitable’, scientists warn. Independent. Retrieved from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/health/coronavirus-second-wave-surge-hong-kong-china-uk-cases-a9420876.html[/efn_note]More than 50 people tested positive for Covid-19 in the Chinese capital with the outbreak coming more than 50 days after the city’s last local case. It comes amid global fears that the virus can easily resurge after restrictions are eased.[efn_note]Speare-Cole, R. (2020, June 13). Coronavirus resurgence near Beijing’s largest market sparks local lockdown. Evening Standard. Retrieved from https://www.standard.co.uk/news/uk/beijing-market-outbreak-sparks-local-lockdown-a4468306.html[/efn_note]
  • flare up:突然の再急増▽Melbourne, Australia’s second-largest city, went back into lockdown at midnight on Wednesday, forcing five million Australians to stay home for all but essential business for the next six weeks to contain a flare-up of coronavirus cases.[efn_note]Xuemin, Y. (2020, July 9). COVID-19 Global Roundup: Millions of Australians re-enter six-week lockdown. CGTN. Retrieved from https://news.cgtn.com/news/2020-07-09/Why-does-coronavirus-flare-up-again-in-Australia–RZ9Gt9zzAA/index.html[/efn_note]
  • spike:急増▽The spike in new cases underscores the challenge that states across the U.S. are facing as they weigh when to ease restrictions designed to stem the spread of the coronavirus outbreak.[efn_note]Slotkin, J. (2020, May 23). North Carolina Reports Highest 1-Day Spike Of COVID-19 Cases. NPR. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2020/05/23/861561659/north-carolina-reports-highest-one-day-spike-of-covid-19-cases[/efn_note]
  • high:(症例数などが)多い、最大数、(増加が)大きい▽Turkey confirmed 1,256 new coronavirus cases on Saturday, the highest daily rise in infections since June …. The French health ministry on Saturday reported 3,310 new coronavirus infections in France over the past 24 hours, setting a new post-lockdown high for the fourth day in a row and taking the country’s cumulative cases to 215,521.[efn_note]Otte, J., Mohdin, A., Walawalkar, A., McGowan, M., & Cox, L. (2020, August 16). Mexico hails ‘good indicator’ of recovery in jobs; US FDA approves new cheaper saliva Covid test – as it happened. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2020/aug/15/coronavirus-live-news-victoria-in-australia-adds-303-cases-as-restrictions-tighten-in-europe?page=with:block-5f38604a8f084b2f60671fb4[/efn_note]
  • cumulative:累計の、累積の▽Spokane County’s cumulative total of COVID-19 cases is approaching 2,000 as another 53 cases were reported on Thursday, July 9.[efn_note]Fox 28. (2020). Spokane County nears 2,000 cumulative cases of COVID-19 as Thursday brings another 53 cases. Retrieved from https://fox28spokane.com/spokane-county-nears-2000-cumulative-cases-of-covid-19-as-thursday-brings-another-53-cases/[/efn_note]
  • death toll {number of the dead} {deaths}:死亡者数 ▽Japan has 16,580 confirmed cases and 830 deaths, according to the health ministry.[efn_note] Cox Media Group National Content Desk. (2020, May 24). Coronavirus updates: Japan expected to lift Tokyo’s state of emergency Monday. Fox 23 News. Retrieved from https://www.fox23.com/news/trending/coronavirus-live-updates-us-coronavirus-cases-top-16m-deaths-inch-closer-100k/XG5FT3G4PVDUHHPTDUNNVC2XMI/[/efn_note]Northern Ireland’s official statistics agency said the country’s coronavirus death toll had risen to 859 after another four deaths in the week to 7 August.[efn_note]Skopeliti, C., Davies, C., Marsh, S., Halliday, J., Sullivan, H., & Doherty, B. (2020, August 16). Northern Ireland’s death toll rises to 859, official figures show. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2020/aug/14/coronavirus-live-news-france-says-uk-quarantine-will-lead-to-reciprocal-measures-as-global-deaths-pass-750000?page=with:block-5f364e838f08d485ec34a8e1[/efn_note]
  • tally:記録、数▽The country has the fourth-highest tally of coronavirus cases in the world, with more than 905,000, though is far behind India, Brazil and the US.[efn_note]Skopeliti, C., Davies, C., Marsh, S., Halliday, J., Sullivan, H., & Doherty, B. (2020, August 16). France infections accelerate; Spain to close nightclubs and ban public smoking – as it happened. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2020/aug/14/coronavirus-live-news-france-says-uk-quarantine-will-lead-to-reciprocal-measures-as-global-deaths-pass-750000?page=with:block-5f364e838f08d485ec34a8e1[/efn_note]
  • die after testing positive for COVID-19:新型コロナウイルスで死亡する▽The health department also reported another 212 Floridians and one non-resident had died after testing positive for the virus.[efn_note]Tatham, C. (2020, August 12). Another 213 people in Florida have died after testing positive for COVID-19. 11 Alive. Retrieved from https://www.11alive.com/article/news/health/coronavirus/florida-coronavirus-cases-deaths-testing-august12/67-1e071418-c230-45f8-93c2-9aa3d368e060[/efn_note]
  • die after being confirmed to have COVID-19:新型コロナウイルスで死亡する▽The number of people in Britain who have died after being confirmed to have COVID-19 has risen by 43 to 42,632, health officials said on Sunday.[efn_note]Holden, M. (2020, June 21). UK death toll from confirmed coronavirus cases rises by 43 to 42,632. Reuters. Retrieved from https://uk.mobile.reuters.com/article/amp/idUKL8N2DY0DX[/efn_note]
  • slow:(感染速度)遅くなる、遅くする▽Coronavirus infections have slowed in Finland over the last two weeks despite the reopening of schools in mid-May.[efn_note]Reuters. (2020). Coronavirus infections slow down in Finland despite schools opening. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-finland/coronavirus-infections-slow-down-in-finland-despite-schools-opening-idUKKBN23B19K[/efn_note]
  • down from:~から減少▽Friday’s figure of 48 cases is down from 69 infections the previous day.[efn_note]Skopeliti, C., Davies, C., Marsh, S., Halliday, J., Sullivan, H., & Doherty, B. (2020, August 16). France infections accelerate; Spain to close nightclubs and ban public smoking – as it happened. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2020/aug/14/coronavirus-live-news-france-says-uk-quarantine-will-lead-to-reciprocal-measures-as-global-deaths-pass-750000?page=with:block-5f364e838f08d485ec34a8e1[/efn_note]
  • up from:~から増加▽Russia has reported 5,065 new daily coronavirus cases, up from 5,057 in the previous 24 hours, Reuters reports.[efn_note]Skopeliti, C., Davies, C., Marsh, S., Halliday, J., Sullivan, H., & Doherty, B. (2020, August 16). France infections accelerate; Spain to close nightclubs and ban public smoking – as it happened. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2020/aug/14/coronavirus-live-news-france-says-uk-quarantine-will-lead-to-reciprocal-measures-as-global-deaths-pass-750000?page=with:block-5f364e838f08d485ec34a8e1[/efn_note]
  • excess deaths:超過死亡▽The agency said the number of excess deaths — deaths above the average for the same period in previous years — was 1,035 over the last 19 weeks in total. Excess deaths are considered the most accurate measure of human fatalities linked to Covid-19.[efn_note]Skopeliti, C., Davies, C., Marsh, S., Halliday, J., Sullivan, H., & Doherty, B. (2020, August 16). France infections accelerate; Spain to close nightclubs and ban public smoking – as it happened. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2020/aug/14/coronavirus-live-news-france-says-uk-quarantine-will-lead-to-reciprocal-measures-as-global-deaths-pass-750000?page=with:block-5f364e838f08d485ec34a8e1[/efn_note]
  • R number (Re or Rt):実効再生産数(effective reproduction number)♢感染症が流行している集団において、ある時点で、一人の感染者から二次感染する人数の平均値。再生産数が1を上回ると、一人の感染者が複数の人に感染させるため、流行は拡大し、1を下回ると、感染者数が減少し、流行は起きないか、収束に向かうと考えられる。[補説]基本再生産数が、その感染症に対する免疫を持っていない集団を対象とするのに対し、実効再生産数は、感染が流行中、あるいは、感染が広がって免疫を持つ人が増えている段階での、感染の広がりやすさを示している。感染症が広がると、時間の経過とともに、免疫を持つ人が増え、感染する可能性のある人の数は減っていく。結果として、再生産数は、感染の広がりとともに低下し、感染は収束に向かう。[efn_note]Goo 辞書. (n.d.). 実効再生産数. Retrieved from https://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/word/%E5%AE%9F%E5%8A%B9%E5%86%8D%E7%94%9F%E7%94%A3%E6%95%B0/#jn-301820[/efn_note]▽The R number represents the number of people each Covid-19 positive person goes on to infect.[efn_note]Lovett, S. (2020, August 7). Coronavirus: R rate could be above 1 in London, northwest and southwest, government warns. Independent. Retrieved from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/health/coronavirus-uk-r-rate-number-cases-covid-latest-today-a9659766.html[/efn_note]Nicola Sturgeon has said Scotland’s R number may be over one, while reporting there are 47 new confirmed cases of coronavirus in Scotland in the last 24 hours.[efn_note]Galloway, C. (2020, August 13). Coronavirus Scotland cases today: 47 new cases in Scotland as R number rises higher than one. Edinburgh Live. Retrieved from https://www.edinburghlive.co.uk/news/edinburgh-news/coronavirus-scotland-cases-today-47-18762825[/efn_note]
  • R nought (or R zero or R0):基本再生産数(basic reproduction number)♢ある感染症について、それまでに感染が広がったことがない、あるいは誰も免疫を持っていない集団において、一人の感染者から感染して発症する二次感染者数の平均値。[efn_note]Goo 辞書. (n.d.). 基本再生産数. Retrieved from https://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/word/%E5%9F%BA%E6%9C%AC%E5%86%8D%E7%94%9F%E7%94%A3%E6%95%B0/#jn-239844[/efn_note]▽When scientists are faced with a new epidemic, they must act to understand how quickly it spreads. They do this by estimating the basic reproduction number called the R0, or R nought, which reflects how infectious a virus is.[efn_note]ITV. (2020). What is the R value and why is the number one so important in stopping the spread of coronavirus? Retrieved from https://www.itv.com/news/2020-04-28/coronavirus-q-a-what-is-the-r-value[/efn_note]
  • infection rate:感染率▽ Lowering the infection rate in those above 70 should be a priority.[efn_note]Science Media Centre. (2020). Expert reaction to Office for National Statistics COVID-19 Infection Survey: characteristics of people testing positive for COVID-19 in England. Retrieved from https://www.sciencemediacentre.org/expert-reaction-to-office-for-national-statistics-covid-19-infection-survey-characteristics-of-people-testing-positive-for-covid-19-in-england/[/efn_note]Coronavirus cases in St Helens continue to rise but there has been a dip in the weekly infection rate, according to the latest official figures.[efn_note]Kilmurray, A. (2020, August 20). The latest weekly coronavirus infection rate for St Helens – and how it compares to other areas. St Helens Star. Retrieved from https://www.sthelensstar.co.uk/news/18663922.latest-weekly-coronavirus-infection-rate-st-helens—compares-areas/[/efn_note]
  • death rate:死亡率▽The town had also recorded 76 Covid-19 deaths by June 21, which out of the 1,028 cases estimated, equates to a death rate of 7.39 per cent.[efn_note]Chalmers, V. (2020, August 5). How many people REALLY die from the coronavirus? Italian research suggests mortality rate could be as high as 7.4% but study in Qatar says it is just 0.01%. Mail Online. Retrieved from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8595307/How-deadly-Covid-19-Italian-study-finds-mortality-rate-7-4-Qatari-study-says-0-01.html[/efn_note]New data has revealed that Midlothian has the highest death rate from Covid-19 in Scotland, and the second highest rate of positive cases.[efn_note]Quinn, K. (2020, August 5). Midlothian has the highest Covid death rate in Scotland. Midlothian Advertiser. Retrieved from https://www.midlothianadvertiser.co.uk/news/people/midlothian-has-highest-covid-death-rate-scotland-2932354[/efn_note]
  • mark:基準点、到達点▽The number of daily coronavirus cases in Tokyo has risen above the 300 mark for the first time in five days.[efn_note]Skopeliti, C., Davies, C., Marsh, S., Halliday, J., Sullivan, H., & Doherty, B. (2020, August 15). France infections accelerate; Spain to close nightclubs and ban public smoking – as it happened. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/live/2020/aug/14/coronavirus-live-news-france-says-uk-quarantine-will-lead-to-reciprocal-measures-as-global-deaths-pass-750000?page=with:block-5f3632f38f086c0ded4f708e[/efn_note]
  • second wave:第2波▽Boris Johnson warned last week that there are signs of a “second wave” of coronavirus infections emerging in Europe.[efn_note]Newey, S. (2020, August 11). Is a second wave beginning to sweep through Europe? The Telegraph. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/science-and-disease/second-wave-coronavirus-covid-19-cases-rising-europe/[/efn_note]

感染予防・拡大防止

  • mask {facemask}:マスク▽CDC recommends that people wear masks in public settings and when around people who don’t live in your household, especially when other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain.[efn_note]Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, August 7). Considerations for Wearing Masks. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/cloth-face-cover-guidance.html[/efn_note]
  • mask mandate:マスク着用義務▽Los Angeles County will reimpose its mask mandate this weekend in the latest sign that public health officials are struggling with an alarming rise in coronavirus cases tied to the highly contagious Delta variant.[efn_note]Bernstein, S. (2021, July 15). Mask mandate returns to Los Angeles as coronavirus cases rise. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/world/us/mask-mandate-returns-los-angeles-coronavirus-cases-rise-2021-07-15/[/efn_note]

  • face covering:顔を覆う物▽People must by law wear a face covering in shops, on public transport and public transport premises such as railway and bus stations and airports, and in certain other indoor public places.[efn_note]Scottish Government. (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19) Phase 3: staying safe and protecting others. Retrieved from https://www.gov.scot/publications/coronavirus-covid-19-phase-3-staying-safe-and-protecting-others/pages/face-coverings/[/efn_note]
  • non-woven fabric:不織布▽Face masks made from non-woven fabric are more effective at blocking the spread of Covid-19 via airborne respiratory droplets than other types that are commonly available, according to modelling in Japan by the world’s fastest supercomputer.[efn_note]McCurry, J. (2020, August 26). Non-woven masks better to stop Covid-19, says Japanese supercomputer. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/aug/26/non-woven-masks-better-to-stop-covid-19-says-japanese-supercomputer[/efn_note]
  • disinfectant wipes {disinfecting wipes}:除菌シート▽Months into the COVID-19 pandemic, Clorox disinfectant wipes and other cleaning products are still difficult – often impossible – to find.[efn_note]Tyko, K. (2020, August 4). Need Clorox wipes? Disinfecting wipes shortage could last into 2021 amid coronavirus pandemic. USA Today. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2020/08/04/coronavirus-shortage-clorox-disinfecting-wipes/3293228001/[/efn_note]
  • social distancing {physical distancing}:身体的距離(の確保)▽Are we required to maintain social distancing during an emergency situation such as a fire evacuation?[efn_note]Fire Safety Register: BAFE® Latest News. (2020, July 2). Are you required to maintain social distancing during an emergency evacuation. Retrieved from https://www.bafe.org.uk/are-you-required-to-maintain-social-distancing-during-an-emergency-evacuation/[/efn_note]Since July 4 any two households can meet together under the same roof, and even stay overnight, as long as they observe social distancing.[efn_note]Penna, D., & Cameron-ChilesheNewey, J. (2020, August 23). When could social distancing end – and what are the UK rules? The Telegraph. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/0/social-distancing-rules-end-when-over-shielding-uk/[/efn_note]You need to follow social distancing guidelines to help reduce the spread of COVID-19. This means limiting your contact with other people and keeping a physical distance of 2 metres (6 feet) away from others.[efn_note]Nova Scotia. (n.d.). COVID-19: staying healthy. Retrieved from https://novascotia.ca/coronavirus/staying-healthy/[/efn_note]Matt Hancock announced the Government will take rapid action if people refuse to abide by social distancing rules following the latest regional lockdown.[efn_note]Kaonga, G. (2020, July 31). ‘We will take rapid action’ Hancock threatens action on social distancing flouters. Express. Retrieved from https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/1316761/Matt-hancock-lockdown-coronavirus-news-BBC-Breakfast-latest-update-heatwave[/efn_note]As the Government set out drastic plans to respond to the coronavirus pandemic, everyone is being advised to follow social distancing measures as much as possible.[efn_note]Dickinson, K. (2020, March 17). Coronavirus outbreak: What is social distancing and what do I need to do? Chronicle Live. Retrieved from https://www.chroniclelive.co.uk/news/north-east-news/coronavirus-outbreak-what-social-distancing-17936463[/efn_note]Businesses should review their risk assessments and include measures to follow social distancing guidelines.[efn_note]NIBUSINESS INFO.CO.UK. (2020). Coronavirus: Workplace safety guidelines and social distancing. Retrieved from https://www.nibusinessinfo.co.uk/content/coronavirus-workplace-safety-guidelines-and-social-distancing[/efn_note]
  • socializing with people outside the household:ほかの家族との交流▽From midnight on Saturday, people living in Oldham, Blackburn and parts of Pendle will be banned from socialising with anyone from outside their household.[efn_note]Graham, H. (2020, August 21). Big changes to local lockdown rules as people banned from socialising with other households. Chronicle Live. Retrieved from https://www.chroniclelive.co.uk/news/north-east-news/big-changes-local-lockdown-rules-18807317[/efn_note]Lee urged everyone to stay at home as much as possible and to avoid socialising with others beyond their own household.[efn_note]Geddie, J., & Su, E. (2020, April 3). Singapore closes workplaces, schools as coronavirus cases jump. Reuters. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavirus-singapore-measures/singapore-closes-workplaces-schools-as-coronavirus-cases-jump-idUKKBN21L0S4[/efn_note]A negative COVID-19 test result is “not a passport to party,” Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti said Wednesday, warning his city’s residents against socializing with people outside their household.[efn_note]Davis, C. (2020, July 9). Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti says a negative COVID-19 test is ‘not a passport to party’. MSN. Retrieved from https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/us/los-angeles-mayor-eric-garcetti-says-a-negative-covid-19-test-is-not-a-passport-to-party/ar-BB16vWU1[/efn_note]
  • flout {defy} social distancing rules {guideline} {measures}:社会的距離を保たない ▽Brits flout social distancing rules and queue for ice cream as lockdown fatigue sets in.[efn_note]Hockaday, J. (2020, April 25). Brits flout social distancing rules and queue for ice cream as lockdown fatigue sets in. Metro. Retrieved from https://metro.co.uk/2020/04/25/brits-flout-social-distancing-rules-queue-ice-cream-lockdown-fatigue-sets-12610312/[/efn_note] Scores of popular tourist beaches were forced to turn away visitors over the weekend after crowds defied social distancing rules.[efn_note]Somerville, E. (2020, July 6). Spain forced to shut 55 beaches in Costa Del Sol and turn away British tourists amid social distancing fears. Evening Standard. Retrieved from https://www.standard.co.uk/news/world/spain-beaches-coronavirus-travel-advice-uk-latest-a4489886.html[/efn_note]
  • avoid close contact:密接を避ける▽Stay at least 6 feet (about 2 arms’ length) from anyone who is not from your household. It’s important to do this everywhere — both indoors and outdoors.[efn_note]Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, August 6). Considerations for Wearing Masks. Retrieved from https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/warning/coronavirus-nauru[/efn_note]
  • face-to-face contact(人)との対面接触▽If you have repeat prescriptions and are self-isolating, ask a friend, neighbour or relative to pick up your medicines for you. They can drop them off outside your door, so that you can avoid face-to-face contact. [efn_note]Birmingham City Council. (n.d.). Do your bit to help reduce pressure on local pharmacies. Retrieved from https://www.birmingham.gov.uk/info/50246/local_guidance_during_covid-19/2163/do_your_bit_to_help_reduce_pressure_on_local_pharmacies[/efn_note]Limiting close face-to-face contact with others is the best way to reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).[efn_note]Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, July 15). Social Distancing: Keep a Safe Distance to Slow the Spread. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/social-distancing.html[/efn_note]
  • contactless reservations and check-in:対面接触を避けた予約・チェックイン▽We’ve streamlined our online (and contactless) reservations, check-ins, and payment systems so there’s less for you to touch.[efn_note]Discover Coronado. (2020). Discover Coronado Safely. Retrieved from https://discovercoronado.com/stay-safe[/efn_note]
  • contactless payment:対面接触を避けた支払い▽As financial ‘safety and security’ take on a whole new viral meaning, contactless and other modern payment platforms are stepping up to enable regular commerce while still adhering to social distancing and other disease-fighting measures.[efn_note]Acquisition International. (n.d.). How Contactless and Other Modern Payment Methods Can Fight the Spread of COVID-19. Retrieved from https://www.acq-intl.com/how-contactless-and-other-modern-payment-methods-can-fight-the-spread-of-covid-19/[/efn_note]
  • hand washing:手洗い▽The NHS says that you should wash your hands with soap and water often, for a period of at least 20 seconds.[efn_note]Shennan, R. (2020, March 16). NHS coronavirus hand washing: the government approved technique explained – plus the best 20 second songs to sing. Edinburgh News. Retrieved from https://www.edinburghnews.scotsman.com/health/nhs-coronavirus-hand-washing-government-approved-technique-explained-plus-best-20-second-songs-sing-2099030[/efn_note]Three months after the World Health Organization recommended singing “Happy Birthday” twice during hand washing to fight the coronavirus, Japan’s Fujitsu Ltd has developed an artificial intelligence monitor it says will ensure healthcare, hotel and food industry workers scrub properly.[efn_note]Reuters. (2020, June 19). Japan’s Fujitsu brings hand washing AI to COVID-19 fight. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-ai-technolog/japans-fujitsu-brings-hand-washing-ai-to-covid-19-fight-idUKKBN23Q1F6[/efn_note]
  • hand sanitizer:手の除菌用ローション▽How and when should you use hand sanitiser and wash your hands to protect yourself against and prevent the spread of coronavirus?[efn_note]Warner, J. (2020, March 18). Handwashing and hand sanitiser use to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Community Pharmacy News, Analysis and CPD. Retrieved from https://www.chemistanddruggist.co.uk/cpd-article/handwashing-and-hand-sanitiser-use-prevent-spread-covid-19[/efn_note]
  • sanitize hands:手を消毒する ▽When shopping, sanitize hands often and avoid touching the face to reduce risk for transmission of the virus.[efn_note]Newkirk, M. (2020, June 25). Coronavirus and 5 Questions about Safe Snacking. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/coronavirus/coronavirus-and-5-questions-about-safe-snacking[/efn_note]
  • flatten the curve:流行曲線をなだらかにする(感染者数のピークを抑えること)▽Four Australian states have recorded no new coronavirus cases in the past 24 hours as the nation continues to flatten the curve and lockdown restrictions begin to ease.[efn_note]Chain, B. (2020, April 26). Four Australian states and territories record ZERO coronavirus cases in 24 hours as the country continues to smash the curve and lockdown measures start to ease. Mail Online. Retrieved from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8258223/Four-Australian-states-record-zero-coronavirus-cases-nation-continues-flatten-curve.html[/efn_note]I’m referring to the ‘flatten the curve’ line chart explaining the need to slow down the spread of coronavirus in order not to overwhelm healthcare services.[efn_note]Kennedy, H. (2020, May 4). Simple data visualisations have become key to communicating about the COVID-19 pandemic, but we know little about their impact. LSE. Retrieved from https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2020/05/04/simple-data-visualisations-have-become-key-to-communicating-about-the-covid-19-pandemic-but-we-know-little-about-their-impact/[/efn_note]
  • gargle:うがい(をする)▽University of Edinburgh experts are recruiting people to take part in a study to test whether gargling with salt water could boost the body’s antiviral abilities.[efn_note]Blanchardo, S. (2020, June 25). Could SALT WATER fight Covid-19? Scientists launch trial of unusual remedy as evidence shows it could reduce symptoms and shorten illness. Mail Online. Retrieved from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8454775/Could-SALT-WATER-fight-Covid-19-Sottish-scientists-begin-gargling-trial.html[/efn_note]
  • surfactant(s):界面活性剤▽Detergents and surfactants are able to deactivate the COVID-19 virus by breaking down the lipid shell around the virus and/or protein components within it.[efn_note]Historic England. (2020). COVID-19: Cleaning and Disinfecting Historic Surfaces. Retrieved from https://historicengland.org.uk/coronavirus/historic-places/cleaning-disinfecting-historic-surfaces/[/efn_note]
  • isolate {self-isolate}:隔離する{自己隔離する}▽Self-isolating means staying at home and not leaving it. People who have symptoms of coronavirus should isolate themselves for 10 days and arrange to get tested.[efn_note]BBC News. (2020, August 16). Coronavirus: What are social distancing and self-isolation rules? Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-51506729[/efn_note]
  • quarantine:検疫、隔離(する)▽Quarantine is used to keep someone who might have been exposed to COVID-19 away from others. Quarantine helps prevent spread of disease that can occur before a person knows they are sick or if they are infected with the virus without feeling symptoms.[efn_note]Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, August 16). When to Quarantine. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/quarantine.html[/efn_note]Everyone arriving in Israel will be required to self-quarantine for 14 days to prevent the spread of coronavirus, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu says.[efn_note]BBC News. (2020, March 9). Coronavirus: Israel to bring in 14-day quarantine for all arrivals. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-51809818[/efn_note]Holidaymakers have been left with less than a day to return to the UK from France before the new quarantine rules come into place.[efn_note]Dear, A. (2020, August 14). Government add France to UK quarantine list as holidaymakers are forced to isolate. Heart. Retrieved from https://www.heart.co.uk/news/coronavirus/france-uk-quarantine-list-rules-government/[/efn_note]
  • closed spaces, crowded places, and close-contact settings:三密(密閉、密集、密接)▽Japan’s public health response emphasized individual behavior, instructing individuals to avoid the “Three Cs”: closed spaces, crowded places, and close-contact settings.[efn_note]Gee, E., Shakoor, A., Calsyn, M., Rapfogel, N., & Spiro, T. (2020, August 6). A New Strategy To Contain the Coronavirus. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/healthcare/news/2020/08/06/488775/new-strategy-contain-coronavirus/[/efn_note]COVID-19 death rates are higher among older people, people in Black and Asian ethnic groups, and for men. It will continue to be important to advise medically vulnerable people to avoid closed spaces, crowded places and close-contact settings.[efn_note]UK Cabinet Office. (2020, June 26). Guidance: Review of two metre social distancing guidance. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/review-of-two-metre-social-distancing-guidance/review-of-two-metre-social-distancing-guidance[/efn_note]
  • nonessential {unless absolutely necessary} {{only when essential}} :不要不急の{{絶対必要なときのみ}}▽On Monday evening UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced a national lockdown, with members of the public restricted from leaving their homes for nonessential reasons.[efn_note]Hubbard, E. (2020, March 24). USA could be next coronavirus epicentre, says WHO. Click Lancashire. Retrieved from https://clicklancashire.com/2020/03/24/usa-could-be-next-coronavirus-epicentre-says-who.html[/efn_note]The city’s governor today asked residents to avoid non-essential outings until April 12 to avoid spreading the virus further.[efn_note]Reuters & DYER, C. (2020, March 25). Tokyo warns of impending ‘explosion of coronavirus infections’ in the city after record 41 new cases as Olympic torch relay is postponed until 2021. Mail Online. Retrieved from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8151547/Tokyo-governor-asks-residents-stay-home-avoid-sharp-coronavirus-rise.html[/efn_note]It is important to remember that if you or other members of your household have symptoms of the new coronavirus, you should not leave your house unless absolutely necessary … until your period of self-isolation is over.[efn_note]Full Fact. (2020, June 5). What counts as essential travel during the Covid-19 lockdown? Retrieved from https://fullfact.org/health/coronavirus-essential-travel/[/efn_note]The management of passengers on the London Underground and Overground is a matter for TfL who, consistent with Government advice, are encouraging passengers to use public transport only when essential.[efn_note]Parliament UK. (2020). Railways: Coronavirus: Written question – 44943. Retrieved from https://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/written-questions-answers-statements/written-question/Commons/2020-05-11/44943/[/efn_note]
  • restrictions:制限▽Other states are examining such closures and several have already imposed restrictions on travelers crossing their borders.[efn_note]Cowboy State Daily. (2020, April 2). Wyoming to Keep Borders Open; Americans Want State Borders Closed. Retrieved from https://cowboystatedaily.com/2020/04/02/wyoming-to-keep-borders-open-americans-want-state-borders-closed/[/efn_note]… there may be restrictions on crossing regional borders.[efn_note]The News Alerts. (2020, April 12). Can I visit my parents or family over Easter? Australia’s coronavirus lockdown rules and restrictions explained. Retrieved from https://thenewsalerts.co.uk/can-i-visit-my-parents-or-family-over-easter-australias-coronavirus-lockdown-rules-and-restrictions-explained/[/efn_note]Google Maps now also includes details on COVID-19 checkpoints and restrictions on crossing national borders.[efn_note]Knowledia. (2020). Google Maps will alert users about COVID-19 related travel restrictions. Retrieved from https://news.knowledia.com/IN/en/articles/google-maps-will-alert-users-about-covid-19-related-travel-restrictions-2dd370ce73b139d1f3c3a0aa67a23447be7642de[/efn_note]Statewide restrictions on elective surgeries and procedures were lifted as of April 21. Malls and national parks can reopen under tight restrictions. Hours may vary and will be limited.[efn_note]Byrnes, H. (2020, May 18). Coronavirus reopening: Every state’s social distancing measures, restrictions on movement. USA Today. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2020/05/18/every-states-rules-for-staying-at-home-and-social-distancing/111715672/[/efn_note]The NSW government is reviewing lockdowns month-by-month, and any restrictions that were eased could be ramped up again, depending on how the infection rate responded.[efn_note]Lackey, B. (2020, April 7). Aussie businesses could start to reopen in just THREE WEEKS: Coronavirus infection curve flattens to a point authorities consider relaxing lockdowns of restaurants and gyms from May 1. Mail Online. Retrieved from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8196813/Coronavirus-infection-curve-flattens-point-authorities-consider-relaxing-restrictions-1.html[/efn_note]Several countries in Europe, including Poland’s neighbour, the Czech Republic, have decided to relax restrictions on society as the daily growth of new infections has slowed.[efn_note]Barteczko, A., & Florkiewicz, P. (2020, April 14). Poland to begin easing coronavirus curbs from Sunday with eye on May vote. Reuters. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-poland-restriction/poland-to-begin-easing-coronavirus-curbs-from-sunday-with-eye-on-may-vote-idUSKCN21W0KQ[/efn_note]
  • stay at home {stay home}:外出を控える、家にいる▽If you have cold or flu-like symptoms, you should stay at home for seven days.[efn_note]William. (2020, May 7). Coronavirus: What is the risk during pregnancy? Dundee Messenger. Retrieved from https://dundeemessenger.co.uk/health/coronavirus-what-is-the-risk-during-pregnancy/[/efn_note]Health officials have urged anyone who feels ill or shows flu or cold-like symptoms to simply stay home in order to minimize the risk of others becoming infected.[efn_note]Wadhwani, A. (2020, March 10). Doctor’s notes should be waived amid COVID-19 spread, B.C. government union says. North Thompson Star / Journal. Retrieved from https://www.barrierestarjournal.com/news/doctors-notes-should-be-waived-amid-covid-19-spread-b-c-government-union-says/[/efn_note]
  • lockdown:封鎖▽They are seeing between 70 and 90 cases per 100,000 people. That is about half the rate Leicester was in when it was put into lockdown.[efn_note]BBC News. (2020, August 21). Coronavirus: Tighter rules for Oldham, Pendle and Blackburn. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-53859865[/efn_note]Swindon Borough Council has launched a campaign this week aimed at getting people to follow guidance around social distancing, hand-washing and wearing masks in order to prevent the town from going into lockdown.[efn_note] Seaward, T. (2020, August 14). Government expected to publish watchlist today – will Swindon go into lockdown? Swindon Advertiser. Retrieved from https://www.swindonadvertiser.co.uk/news/18650781.government-expected-publish-watchlist-today—will-swindon-go-lockdown/[/efn_note]Cuba placed Havana back on a strict lockdown on Saturday following a rebound in coronavirus cases, ordering restaurants, bars and pools once more to close, suspending public transportation and banning access to the beach.[efn_note]Reuters. (2020, August 9). Havana back on lockdown as coronavirus rebounds. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavirus-cuba/havana-back-on-lockdown-as-coronavirus-rebounds-idUKKCN2540VQ[/efn_note] The incredible ways people have adapted to life under lockdown are revealed in a new collection of photographs.[efn_note] Kelly, J. (2020, August 20). Snapshots illuminate life under coronavirus lockdown. The Northern Echo. Retrieved from https://www.thenorthernecho.co.uk/news/18662163.snapshots-illuminate-life-coronavirus-lockdown/[/efn_note]Some lockdown measures were eased in England last Wednesday, allowing people from different households to meet outdoors.[efn_note]BBC News. (2020, May 18). Coronavirus: Scotland aims to ease lockdown on 28 May. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-52707747[/efn_note]
  • state of emergency:緊急事態▽Abe declared the state of emergency on April 7, as virus cases surged. It initially covered only Tokyo and six other areas but later expanded to include the whole country.[efn_note]Hockaday, J. (2020, April 30). Japanese island hit by second coronavirus wave after lockdown lifted ‘too early’. Metro. Retrieved from https://metro.co.uk/2020/04/30/japanese-island-hit-second-coronavirus-wave-lockdown-lifted-12632163/[/efn_note]Japan has lifted a state of emergency imposed due to the coronavirus in 39 out of 47 prefectures, after a sharp fall in new infections.[efn_note]BBC News. (2020, May 14). Coronavirus: State of emergency lifted in most of Japan. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-52658551[/efn_note]Japan will not reintroduce a state of emergency to tackle the novel coronavirus, a government spokesman said on Friday, as cases in Tokyo rose to a two-month high driven by the spread of the virus in the capital’s night spots.[efn_note]Reuters. (2020, July 3). No new state of emergency as nightlife drives Tokyo’s coronavirus spread. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavirus-japan/no-new-state-of-emergency-as-nightlife-drives-tokyos-coronavirus-spread-idUKKBN244098[/efn_note]
  • request (for people to stay at home):自粛要請▽Unlike a European-style hard lockdown, Japan’s state of emergency is soft and largely a request for people to stay at home and for non-essential businesses to close or operate shorter hours, a strategy aimed at minimising the economic damage.[efn_note]The Associated Press (2020, May 25). The Latest: Japan set to end Tokyo’s state of emergency. AP News. Retrieved from https://apnews.com/da5079609e0a6949df3ebead112d9062[/efn_note]Japan has broadened a request for people to stay away from bars, clubs and restaurants across the whole country.[efn_note]Waddington, S. & Timms, K. (2020, May 9). Urgent: Stay at home warning as COVID-19 deaths reach new high – latest coronavirus updates. Plymouth Live. Retrieved from https://www.plymouthherald.co.uk/news/plymouth-news/live-coronavirus-deaths-new-high-4039437[/efn_note]Tokyo Governor Yuriko Koike will ask residents on Wednesday to refrain from going outside for non-essential business at the weekend, public broadcaster NHK said.[efn_note]Reuters. (2020, March 25). Tokyo governor to ask residents to stay indoors at weekend as coronavirus cases rise – NHK. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/health-coronavirus-japan-tokyo-idUKL4N2BI38M[/efn_note]
  • contain {limit} the spread of (COVID-19):感染拡大をくいとめる▽Only 17 states across the United States have managed to limit the spread of coronavirus, according to a new interactive tool that tracks the rate of secondary infections of COVID-19. [efn_note]Crane, E. (2020, April 23). Only 17 states across the US have managed to contain the spread of coronavirus but ALL SIX of those that are reopening amid the pandemic have not, new infection rate data shows. Mail Online. Retrieved from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8249973/States-fastest-spreading-COVID-19-cases-Data.html[/efn_note]The United States’ failure to contain the spread of coronavirus has been met with astonishment and alarm in Europe, as the world’s most powerful country edges closer to a global record of five million confirmed infections. [efn_note]Associated Press. (2020, August 9). Europe stunned by American coronavirus response as US approaches five million infections. The Telegraph. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/08/09/europe-stunned-american-coronavirus-response-us-approaches-five/[/efn_note]
  • prevent {curb} {stem} {slow} the spread of COVID-19:感染拡大を防止する▽But health experts say the evidence is clear that masks can help prevent the spread of COVID-19 and that the more people wearing masks, the better.[efn_note]Bai, N. (2020, June 26). Still Confused About Masks? Here’s the Science Behind How Face Masks Prevent Coronavirus. University of California San Francisco. Retrieved from https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2020/06/417906/still-confused-about-masks-heres-science-behind-how-face-masks-prevent[/efn_note]Will school temperature checks curb the spread of coronavirus?[efn_note]Russell, F., & Ryan, K. (2020, July 24). Will school temperature checks curb the spread of coronavirus? The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/will-school-temperature-checks-curb-the-spread-of-coronavirus-142999[/efn_note]
  • disinformation:偽情報▽U.S. officials say Russian intelligence officers are spreading disinformation about the coronavirus pandemic through English-language websites, trying to exploit a crisis that America is struggling to contain before the presidential election in November.[efn_note]The Associated Press. (2020, July 29). US Officials: Russia Behind Spread of Virus Disinformation. VOA News. Retrieved from https://www.voanews.com/covid-19-pandemic/us-officials-russia-behind-spread-virus-disinformation[/efn_note]

検査

現在使われている新型コロナウイルス感染症の検査は、PCR検査、抗原検査、抗体検査の3種類です。

PCR検査:新型コロナウイルスに固有の遺伝子を見つける検査です。検体には鼻・喉の奥から拭い取った粘液、唾液を用います。現在感染しているかどうかを調べます。

抗原検査PCR検査と同様に、鼻・喉の粘液、唾液などを検体とし、ウイルスのタンパク質である抗原を検出します。現在感染しているかどうかを調べます。簡便な検査キットが最近開発され、30分程度の短時間で判定できるというメリットがあります。抗原は、ウイルスや細菌などの表面に存在し、生体に免疫応答を引き起こす物質です。抗原は、抗体(体内に入った抗原を排除するために作られるタンパク質)が異物を認識して破壊するための標的となる物質です。ちなみに、インフルエンザの検査も抗原検査です。

抗体検査:過去に感染したかどうかが分かります。抗体は体の中に侵入してきた病原体などに対応するために、免疫反応によって生体内で作られるタンパク質です。発症後数週間後くらいから抗体を検出できると言われています。抗体検査が陽性であれば、過去に「感染した」と言えます。

さらに詳しい説明は、厚生労働省の「新型コロナウイルス感染症に関する検査について」というウエブサイトなどを見てください。

  • test positive / negative (for COVID-19):検査で陽性/陰性判定が出る▽Anyone who tested positive for COVID-19 but never experienced symptoms may discontinue isolation 10 days after they first tested positive for COVID-19.[efn_note]Harvard Health Publishing. (2020, August 18). If you’ve been exposed to the coronavirus. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/if-youve-been-exposed-to-the-coronavirus[/efn_note]Ohio governor Mike DeWine announced Thursday morning that he had tested positive for the coronavirus — but on Thursday night, he said a second test came back negative.[efn_note]Albert, V. (2020, August 7). Ohio governor says he tested negative for COVID-19 hours after announcing positive result. CBS News. Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/mike-dewine-ohio-governor-covid-19-negative-test-hours-after-positive/[/efn_note]Although he had tested negative for the coronavirus, his Delaware care team said the tests available in early April were unreliable.[efn_note]Fraser, J., & USA Today. (2020, July 19). Uncounted millions had COVID-19 symptoms, but no positive test. The Herald News. Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/mike-dewine-ohio-governor-covid-19-negative-test-hours-after-positive/[/efn_note]
  • PCR testPCR検査♢PCRはポリメラーゼ連鎖反応の略▽Today, COVID-19 testing relies primarily on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a technique to amplify the virus’ genetic material, making it easy to detect.[efn_note]Service, R. F. (2020, August 3). Radical shift in COVID-19 testing needed to reopen schools and businesses, researchers say. Science. Retrieved from https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/08/radical-shift-testing-strategy-needed-reopen-schools-and-businesses-researchers-say[/efn_note]The PCR test looks for evidence that the virus is currently in your body, by detecting the presence of its RNA in a swab sample from your nose/throat.[efn_note]NHS Imperial College Healthcare. (2020, July 30). Coronavirus testing explained. Retrieved from https://www.imperial.nhs.uk/about-us/coronavirus-innovations/coronavirus-testing-explained[/efn_note]
  • antigen test:抗原検査▽Because antigen tests don’t amplify viral material but simply detect what is present in the sample, they are less accurate than PCR.[efn_note]Service, R. F. (2020, August 3). Radical shift in COVID-19 testing needed to reopen schools and businesses, researchers say. Science. Retrieved from https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2020/08/radical-shift-testing-strategy-needed-reopen-schools-and-businesses-researchers-say[/efn_note]
  • antibody test {serology test}:抗体検査▽Antibody tests check your blood by looking for antibodies, which may tell you if you had a past infection with the virus that causes COVID-19. Antibodies are proteins that help fight off infections and can provide protection against getting that disease again (immunity).[efn_note]Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, June 30). Test for Past Infection. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/testing/serology-overview.html[/efn_note]
  • swab:綿棒;綿棒で集めた鼻咽頭ぬぐい液▽The test involves taking a swab of the inside of your nose and the back of your throat, using a long cotton bud.[efn_note]NHS. (2020, August 21). Get a free NHS test today to check if you have coronavirus. Retrieved from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/coronavirus-covid-19/testing-and-tracing/get-a-test-to-check-if-you-have-coronavirus/[/efn_note]Like the nasal swab, the saliva test detects active COVID-19 infection in patients who are experiencing symptoms or who may have been exposed to someone with coronavirus.[efn_note]Vuong, K. T. (2020, August 18). Coronavirus Blood Test (Antibody) Vs Swab And Saliva Test (PCR) – Which Is Best? Mira. Retrieved from https://www.talktomira.com/post/coronavirus-blood-test-antibody-swab-test-pcr-saliva-test-differences[/efn_note]
  • drive-through testing center {unit} {station}:ドライブスルー検査所▽New York is among roughly 10 states that have set up their own drive-through testing centers, as state and local leaders look to compensate for an acute shortage of tests in the United States.[efn_note]Nir, S. M. (2020, March 19). In Virus Hot Spot, Lining Up and Anxious at Drive-in Test Center. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/17/nyregion/new-rochelle-coronavirus-testing.html[/efn_note]There are now 65 regional drive-through testing centres set up by the Department of Health that you can get tested at.[efn_note]Hainey, F. (2020, May 19). Where are all the drive-through coronavirus test centres in the UK? Here is the full list. Manchester Evening News. Retrieved from https://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/news/uk-news/coronavirus-test-centres-near-me-18179700[/efn_note]

接触者追跡・感染経路調査

  • contact tracing:接触者追跡▽Contact tracing is a process for identifying people at risk of coronavirus (COVID-19) infection because they‘ve been physically close enough to a person who has tested positive.[efn_note]NHS Inform. (2020, August 12). Coronavirus (COVID-19): Contact tracing. Retrieved from https://www.nhsinform.scot/illnesses-and-conditions/infections-and-poisoning/coronavirus-covid-19/test-and-protect/coronavirus-covid-19-contact-tracing[/efn_note]
  • contact:接触者▽You are considered to be a close contact if you have been informed by an NHS contact tracer that you have been in close contact with someone who has tested positive or live with a person who has symptoms or has tested positive.[efn_note]NHS Inform. (2020, August 12). Coronavirus (COVID-19): Contact tracing. Retrieved from https://www.nhsinform.scot/illnesses-and-conditions/infections-and-poisoning/coronavirus-covid-19/test-and-protect/coronavirus-covid-19-contact-tracing[/efn_note]If you have been informed that you are a contact of a person who has had a positive test result for COVID-19 , medical advice is clear: you must immediately self-isolate at home for 14 days from the date of your last contact with them.[efn_note]Gov.UK. (2020, August 12). Coronavirus (COVID-19): Guidance and support. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/guidance-for-contacts-of-people-with-possible-or-confirmed-coronavirus-covid-19-infection-who-do-not-live-with-the-person/guidance-for-contacts-of-people-with-possible-or-confirmed-coronavirus-covid-19-infection-who-do-not-live-with-the-person#:~:text=If%20you%20have%20been%20informed,the%20self%2Disolation%20guidance%20below[/efn_note]
  • contact tracing app:接触者確認アプリ▽The NHSX Coronavirus Contact Tracing App was first piloted on the Isle of Wight in May 2020, prior to general release across the country.[efn_note]On the Wight. (2020, August 21). Coronavirus Contact Tracing App. Retrieved from https://onthewight.com/about/contact-tracing-app-isle-of-wight/[/efn_note]

重症化リスクの高い人

  • people at higher of severe illness:重症化リスクの高い人▽Certain groups of people are at higher risk of developing severe illness from COVID-19.[efn_note]Scottish Government. (2020, August 8). Coronavirus (COVID-19) Phase 3: guidance for the safe use of places of worship. Retrieved from https://www.gov.scot/publications/coronavirus-covid-19-phase-3-guidance-for-the-safe-use-of-places-of-worship/pages/people-at-higher-risk-shielding/[/efn_note]Public Health England also says there are some clinical conditions which put people at even higher risk of severe illness from Covid-19 and that those people should “rigorously follow the social distancing advice in full”.[efn_note]Lewis, F. (2020, March 17). Coronavirus high risk people: The full list of those considered most vulnerable to Covid-19. Wales Online. Retrieved from https://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/wales-news/coronavirus-high-risk-people-full-17940102[/efn_note]
  • people at increased risk for severe illness:重症化しやすい人▽It is especially important for people at increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19, and those who live with them, to protect themselves from getting COVID-19.[efn_note]Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, August 16). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/older-adults.html[/efn_note]
  • high-risk people {individuals}:重症化リスクの高い人▽Ensuring people who are in regular contact with high-risk individuals are not infected with coronavirus could be a way of controlling outbreaks, research suggests.[efn_note]Express & Star. (2020, August 21). Protecting high-risk people may help control Covid-19 outbreaks, study suggests. Retrieved from https://www.expressandstar.com/news/uk-news/2020/08/21/protecting-high-risk-people-may-help-control-covid-19-outbreaks-study-suggests/[/efn_note]The message is clear – reducing the risk of exposing high-risk people is key to our individual and societal response to the coronavirus outbreak.[efn_note]The Conversation. (2020, March 13). Coronavirus: who is at risk and how do we know? Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/coronavirus-who-is-at-risk-and-how-do-we-know-133547[/efn_note]
  • clinically vulnerable people:重症化リスクの高い人▽Nadhim Zahawi said a decision had not yet been made on how to prioritise the use of available doses once the priority groups, such as elderly and clinically vulnerable people, had received an initial dose.[efn_note]Reuters. (2021, January 13). UK minister favours vaccinating teachers, police ahead of second dose deployment. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/idUSKBN29I1GJ[/efn_note]
  • people with underlying medical conditions {underlying health condition}:基礎疾患のある人▽The groups of people we are most worried about are: People over70, people with an underlying health condition such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure, and anyone who already has a compromised immune system (for example, some cancer medications affect the immune system).[efn_note]NHS Sussex Partnership. (2020, August 16). What is Coronavirus (Covid-19)? Retrieved from https://www.sussexpartnership.nhs.uk/sites/default/files/documents/covid-19_what_is_it.pdf[/efn_note]
  • people who are obese:肥満の人▽It has become clearer that people who are obese are one of the groups at highest risk from the disease, regardless of their age. The CDC recently refined its risk categories for COVID-19, stating that obesity was as big a risk for COVID as having a suppressed immune system or chronic lung or kidney disease.[efn_note]Goodman, B.. (2020, March 17). Why Obesity May Stack the Deck for COVID-19 Risk. Web MD. Retrieved from https://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20200714/why-obesity-may-stack-the-deck-for-covid-19-risk[/efn_note]

治療

  • prone positioning:うつ伏せ姿勢♢新型コロナウイルス感染症で最も影響を受ける肺がこの姿勢によって広がるので症状が改善する可能性がある▽Proning, or prone positioning involves moving an intensive care patient onto their stomach for 12 hours to move fluid that has gathered in their lungs. The technique increases oxygen flow and promotes the use of different parts of the lungs, which lowers their chances of needing ventilation.[efn_note]Shennan, R. (2020, April 17). This is what you need to know about proning – the lying down position for coronavirus patients. Kirkintilloch Herald. Retrieved from https://www.kirkintilloch-herald.co.uk/read-this/what-you-need-know-about-proning-lying-down-position-coronavirus-patients-2542003[/efn_note]
  • ventilators:人工呼吸器▽An increasing number of U.S. covid-19 patients are surviving after they are placed on mechanical ventilators.[efn_note]Bernstein, L. (2020, July 4). More covid-19 patients are surviving ventilators in the ICU. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/more-covid-19-patients-are-surviving-ventilators-in-the-icu/2020/07/03/2e3c3534-bbca-11ea-8cf5-9c1b8d7f84c6_story.html[/efn_note]
  • anticoagulants:抗凝固剤♢新型コロナウイルス感染症患者においては血栓性イベントのリスクがあるため抗凝固剤が有効とされる▽He was also given anticoagulants to help break up the clot. Vega was able to go home, but still needs to take two types of blood-thinning drugs: a low-dose aspirin and the drug Eliquis, a type of anticoagulant.[efn_note]Edwards, E. (2020, May 7). For sickest patients, blood thinners may be linked to reduced COVID-19 deaths, study finds. NBC News. Retrieved from https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/blood-thinners-may-be-linked-reduced-covid-19-deaths-study-n1201276[/efn_note]
  • remdesivir:レムデシビル▽A large federal study that found an antiviral drug, remdesivir, can hasten the recovery in hospitalized Covid-19 patients, has begun a new phase of investigation.[efn_note]Kolata, G. (2020, August 18). Federal Study of Covid Treatments Enters a New Phase. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/18/health/Covid-treatments-remdesivir.html[/efn_note]
  • (convalescent) plasma:回復期血漿(けっしょう)▽Blood plasma donated by people who have recovered from covid-19 will be used as a treatment for the infection in the US.[efn_note]Hamzelou, J. (2020, August 25). Convalescent plasma treatment for covid-19 has been oversold by the US. New Scientist. Retrieved from https://www.newscientist.com/article/2252737-convalescent-plasma-treatment-for-covid-19-has-been-oversold-by-the-us/[/efn_note]After a virus, your plasma contains antibodies used to help fight infection. Convalescent plasma is the antibody-rich plasma of someone who has recovered from a virus, in this case COVID-19.[efn_note]NHS. (2020, August 28). Convalescent plasma programme. Retrieved from https://www.nhsbt.nhs.uk/covid-19-research/plasma-programme/[/efn_note]
  • neutralizing antibody:中和抗体▽A neutralizing antibody (NAb) is an antibody that is responsible for defending cells from pathogens…. A neutralizing antibody can stop a pathogen from infecting the body by affecting how the molecules on the pathogen’s surface can enter cells in the body.[efn_note]Zoppi, L. (2020, July 28). What are Neutralizing Antibodies? News Medical Life Sciences. Retrieved from https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-are-Neutralizing-Antibodies.aspx[/efn_note]
  • ivermectin:イベルメクチン♢2015年のノーベル医学生理学賞を受賞した大村智氏が土壌の微生物から分離したアベルメクチンという物質からできた薬▽Health authorities in Australia have warned the public against trying to treat coronavirus at home…. The warning comes after a study found that the drug Ivermectin, which is usually used to treat head lice, stops coronavirus growing in cell culture.[efn_note]Metro. (2020, April 5). Warning against DIY treatments after head lice drug ‘stops coronavirus growing’. Retrieved from https://metro.co.uk/2020/04/05/warning-diy-coronavirus-treatment-given-head-lice-drug-shows-promise-12510890/[/efn_note]

医療現場・介護現場

  • PPE (personal protective equipment)個人防護具▽Six months into the Covid-19 crisis, there is still a dire shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) for our health-care workers, particularly those on the front lines of the coronavirus pandemic.[efn_note]Cohen, D. (2020, August 22). Op-Ed: Why a PPE shortage still plagues America and what we need to do about it. CNBC. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2020/08/22/coronavirus-why-a-ppe-shortage-still-plagues-the-us.html[/efn_note]Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects the user against health or safety risks at work. It includes different types of respiratory protective equipment (RPE), such as masks and respirators.[efn_note]Halton Chamber of Commerce & Enterprise. (n.d.). Using PPE at work during the coronavirus outbreak. Retrieved from https://www.haltonchamber.co.uk/news/using-ppe-at-work-during-the-coronavirus-outbreak.html[/efn_note]
  • healthcare system under pressure:医療現場のひっ迫▽Northern Ireland’s chief medical officer, Dr Michael McBride, warned that the virus will put the healthcare system under pressure.[efn_note]Kaidan, M. (2020, March 13). Coronavirus schools latest: Stormont government ‘disappointed’ over Republic’s closures. Express. Retrieved from https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/1254652/coronavirus-school-closures-latest-irish-government-michelle-o-neill-northern-ireland[/efn_note]Health workers warn of chaos on the wards as the healthcare system strains under the pressure of an escalating outbreak.[efn_note]Olanday, D., & Smith, N. (2020, August 20). Philippine medics struggle to cope in overwhelmed hospitals as lockdown eases. The Telegraph. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/science-and-disease/philippine-medics-struggle-cope-overwhelmed-hospitals-lockdown/[/efn_note]In March and April, New York’s healthcare system was under extreme pressure from the coronavirus outbreak.[efn_note]Reuters. (2020, April 30). Partly false claim: In January, New York’s Governor said there were ample resources to provide healthcare to “illegals” but system struggled during coronavirus outbreak. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-factcheck-cuomo-healthcare-illegals/partly-false-claim-in-january-new-yorks-governor-said-there-were-ample-resources-to-provide-healthcare-to-illegals-but-system-struggled-during-coronavirus-outbreak-idUSKBN22C2N0[/efn_note]
  • aerosol-generating procedures:エアロゾルが発生する処置▽If aerosol generating procedures are necessary for dental care, use four-handed dentistry, high evacuation suction and dental dams to minimize droplet spatter and aerosols.[efn_note]Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, August 4). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Guidance for Dental Settings. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/dental-settings.html[/efn_note]
  • nursing home {care home} {aged care facility}:老人ホーム▽ Of the country’s nearly 130,000 coronavirus deaths, more than 40 percent have been residents or employees of nursing homes and long-term-care facilities.[efn_note]Khazan, O. (2020, July 6). The U.S. Is Repeating Its Deadliest Pandemic Mistake. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2020/07/us-repeating-deadliest-pandemic-mistake-nursing-home-deaths/613855/[/efn_note]During the coronavirus pandemic more people died with the virus in Scotland’s care homes than in its hospitals.[efn_note]Daly, M. (2020, July 28). Coronavirus: What went wrong in Scotland’s care homes? BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-53492929[/efn_note]

教育・経済

  • school shutdown:学校閉鎖▽Look at what St Albans children have been up to during coronavirus school shutdown.[efn_note] Bill, L. (2020, March 25). Look at what St Albans children have been up to during coronavirus school shutdown. Herts Advertiser. Retrieved from https://www.hertsad.co.uk/news/education/st-albans-homeschooling-photos-during-coronavirus-closure-1-6578640[/efn_note]Already in the South and the Midwest, students and teachers have brought the virus to school with them, triggering quarantines, delayed openings and temporary shutdowns as positive tests roll in.[efn_note]Mervosh, S., & Hubler, S. (2020, August 13). As the Coronavirus Comes to School, a Tough Choice: When to Close. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/03/us/school-closing-coronavirus.html[/efn_note]
  • online class {remote class} {distance learning}:オンライン授業、遠隔授業▽In order to keep COVID-19 from spreading, SUU has made the difficult decision to join the other colleges and universities in Utah and extend online/remote class instruction through the summer semester.[efn_note]Southern Utah University. (2020, August 3). Online/Remote Summer Semester – Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from https://www.suu.edu/news/related.html?filter=Coronavirus[/efn_note]When Hong Kong student Wendy received a question from her geography teacher during an online class, she scrambled to unmute her mother’s cellphone, but the screen kept freezing. She had already used up her monthly five gigabytes data allowance.[efn_note]Wu, S., & Pang, J. (2020, March 20). A poorer student falls behind in Hong Kong as coronavirus forces online learning. Reuters. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavirus-hongkong-students/a-poorer-student-falls-behind-in-hong-kong-as-coronavirus-forces-online-learning-idUKKBN2170X9[/efn_note]She said: “Now that dance schools are closed and children aren’t getting access to dance and physical activities, and at a time when people are losing their jobs, I’ve decided to put all my dance classes online for free.” … The first online class Belle posted has almost reached 5,000 views.[efn_note]Holmwood, C. (2020, March 23). Coronavirus Kent: Xtreme Dance Academy teacher gives free online classes during Covid-19 outbreak. Kent Online. Retrieved from https://www.kentonline.co.uk/sittingbourne/news/dance-teacher-offering-free-online-classes-for-all-ages-224310/[/efn_note]Students at Saudi Arabia’s public schools will be educated via distance learning as a precaution against coronavirus for the first seven weeks of the new term.[efn_note]Reuters. (2020, August 16). Saudi Arabia plans distance learning for schools as virus precaution. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-saudi-education/saudi-arabia-plans-distance-learning-for-schools-as-virus-precaution-idUSKCN25B0WM[/efn_note]
  • face-to-face class:体面授業▽He said: “Whilst on-line teaching is certainly better than no teaching, it can never replace face to face class room education.”[efn_note]Banner, T. (2020, April 24). Abbey College in Malvern to re-open in summer to replace lost term. Nalvern Gazette. Retrieved from https://www.malverngazette.co.uk/news/18403303.abbey-college-malvern-re-open-summer-replace-lost-term/[/efn_note]During the COVID-19 lockdown, many instructors have been rushing to switch their face-to-face class into online formats.[efn_note]Business Gateway. (n.d.). Q & A – Selecting the right platforms to run online classes. Retrieved from https://www.bgateway.com/resources/digitalboost/digital-resources/q-a-selecting-the-right-platforms-to-run-online-classes[/efn_note]
  • in-person classes:体面授業▽In-person class size would be limited to fewer than 50 students per class, or 50 per cent of classroom capacity, whichever is smaller. A majority of in-person classes would entail fewer than 25 students, and any classes of 50 students or more would offer a virtual format.[efn_note]Zoellner, D. (2020, June 26). Coronavirus: What college and universities will look in the fall as cases surge across the US. Independent. Retrieved from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/coronavirus-cases-usa-college-school-return-fall-2020-a9588246.html[/efn_note]
  • staggered (classes {schedules}):時差(授業)、分散授業▽Many children are set to go back to school next week under precautionary measures such as staggered classes. Tokyo Governor Yuriko Koike has warned against complacency and said everyone had to get used to a “new normal” of teleworking and staggered commutes until a vaccine or treatment is developed.[efn_note]Okamoto, A., & Kim, C. (2020, May 26). Japanese face “new normal” after coronavirus emergency lifted. Reuters. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavirus-japan/japanese-face-new-normal-after-coronavirus-emergency-lifted-idUKKBN2320PC[/efn_note]Along with reinforcing hand-washing techniques and special attention to disinfecting common surfaces, the guidelines suggest that face coverings be used and staggered schedules should be set up to help to contain the spread of the novel coronavirus.[efn_note]Lord, D. (2020, May 22). When will schools reopen? CDC releases recommendations on what schools should do. WFTV. Retrieved from https://www.wftv.com/news/trending/when-will-schools-reopen-cdc-releases-recommendations-what-schools-should-do/IJN2B6IORRBQHCENVXFUDKRCRQ/[/efn_note]
  • staggered (work hours):時差(勤務、出勤)▽Foye … sees staggered work hours and days as “part of the answer” to congestion, citing the 1918 response.[efn_note]Layne, N. (2020, May 20). As in 1918, New York may use staggered work hours to keep subway safe. Reuters. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavirus-usa-subway/as-in-1918-new-york-may-use-staggered-work-hours-to-keep-subway-safe-idUKKBN22W1DI[/efn_note]Marsh & McLennan Cos … said it instructed office leaders to make plans for staggered teams at the office and to determine whether commuters should travel at off-peak times.[efn_note]Layne, N. (2020, May 20). As in 1918, New York may use staggered work hours to keep subway safe. Reuters. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavirus-usa-subway/as-in-1918-new-york-may-use-staggered-work-hours-to-keep-subway-safe-idUKKBN22W1DI[/efn_note]
  • rota basis (英){roster basis}:交代制、シフト制、分散登校型▽English secondary schools in local lockdown areas could have to use a “rota system” to limit the number of teenagers attending at any one time, with teachers and pupils required to wear face masks in communal areas, according to new government guidance.[efn_note]PA Media. (2020, August 28). Secondary schools in England could use attendance ‘rota system’. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/education/2020/aug/28/secondary-schools-in-england-could-use-attendance-rota-system[/efn_note]Instead, students will likely attend school “on a roster” basis from some time next term.[efn_note]Porter, M. (2020, April 17). NSW Premier Gladys Berejiklian proposes roster system to get kids back to school. Instead, students will likely attend school “on a roster” basis from some time next term.[efn_note]Porter, M. (2020, April 17). NSW Premier Gladys Berejiklian proposes roster system to get kids back to school. St George and Sutherland Shire Leader. Retrieved from https://www.theleader.com.au/story/6726423/roster-system-proposal-for-state-schools/[/efn_note]We reserve the right to recall staff from furlough, and indeed some teams may be furloughed on a rota basis (with a minimum period of 3-weeks on furlough) if this is possible.[efn_note]University of Bath. (2020, April 9). UK Government Coronavirus Job Retention Scheme. Retrieved from https://www.bath.ac.uk/announcements/uk-government-coronavirus-job-retention-scheme/[/efn_note]
  • communal spaces:共有空間▽Close communal spaces, such as break rooms, if possible; otherwise, stagger use and clean and disinfect in between uses.[efn_note]Stl Louis Mo Gov. (n.d.). Guidance For Retail Services and Malls in the City of St. Louis. Retrieved from https://www.stlouis-mo.gov/government/departments/health/communicable-disease/covid-19/guidance/phase-one/retail.cfm[/efn_note]
  • physical barriers {plastic screens}:(飛沫対策)アクリル板、ビニールパーテーション▽Protect your staff and customers against virus infection with protective screens, dividing protection walls and standalone screen guards. Sponmech are now offering high-quality protective plastic screening to shield and divide people from the risks of catching coronavirus via droplets in the air.[efn_note]Sponmech Safety Systems. (n.d.). COVID-19 PLASTIC SCREEN GUARDS. Retrieved from https://www.sponmech.co.uk/covid-19-plastic-screen-guards-p34[/efn_note]Install physical barriers, such as sneeze guards and partitions, in areas where it is difficult for individuals to remain at least 6 feet apart (e.g., reception desks).[efn_note]Lord, D. (2020, May 22). When will schools reopen? CDC releases recommendations on what schools should do. WFTV. Retrieved from https://www.wftv.com/news/trending/when-will-schools-reopen-cdc-releases-recommendations-what-schools-should-do/IJN2B6IORRBQHCENVXFUDKRCRQ/[/efn_note]
  • floor sticker {floor graphics} {floor signs} {floor tape}:フロア誘導シール▽Council workers had hurriedly installed a one-way system in the market alleyways and laid floor stickers to encourage shoppers to keep 2 metres apart.[efn_note]Partridge, J. (2020, June 1). One way please! Norwich Market reopens for business. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/jun/01/one-way-please-norwich-market-reopens-for-business[/efn_note] Some stores have installed wipe and hand sanitizer stations and put colored tape on floors to help customers keep their distance at checkout lines.[efn_note]Parker-Pope, T. (2020, April 18). Who Knew Grocery Shopping Could Be So Stressful? The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/26/well/eat/coronavirus-shopping-food-groceries-infection.html[/efn_note]
  • hospitality sector:接客業▽Hodes points out that the tourism and hospitality sector has been one of the biggest casualties of the Covid-19 pandemic.[efn_note]Smith, C. (2020, July 20). ‘Unparalleled’ decline in tourism accommodation puts Covid-19 impact in perspective. News 24. Retrieved from https://www.news24.com/fin24/companies/travelandleisure/unparalleled-decline-in-tourism-accommodation-puts-covid-19-impact-in-perspective-20200720[/efn_note]The guidance is aimed at business owners, operators and workers in hotels, indoor and outdoor attractions and experiences, as well as hospitality businesses.[efn_note]Rice, C. (2020, June 23). Coronavirus: Reopening guide for tourism and hospitality sector. BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-northern-ireland-53158453[/efn_note]
  • travel sector:旅行業▽ Abta’s call for more support for the travel sector comes amid a string of closures and redundancies across the industry, from airlines to tour operators, in what would traditionally be peak travel season.[efn_note] Partridge, J. (2020, August 24). Abta says Covid crisis could claim 18% of UK travel sector’s jobs. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/business/2020/aug/24/abta-says-covid-crisis-could-claim-18-of-uk-travel-sectors-jobs[/efn_note]
  • teleworking {telecommuting} {working from home} {work remotely}:在宅勤務▽Where breathless advocates consider telecommuting the best thing to happen to work-life balance since casual Fridays, human resources departments see goofing off on the clock.[efn_note]Sweeney, P. (2020, June 24). Breakingviews – The looming war over working from home. Reuters. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-workfromhome-break/breakingviews-the-looming-war-over-working-from-home-idUKKBN23V0C7[/efn_note]As spring sprung in North America, Facebook, Google and others told staff they could telework for the rest of the year.[efn_note]Sweeney, P. (2020, June 24). Breakingviews – The looming war over working from home. Reuters. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-workfromhome-break/breakingviews-the-looming-war-over-working-from-home-idUKKBN23V0C7[/efn_note]The outbreak of COVID-19 saw governments around the world ordering employers to let their staff work from home wherever it was possible to do so.[efn_note]Ballard, B. (2020, June 25). The future of remote working. The New Economy. Retrieved from https://www.theneweconomy.com/strategy/the-future-of-remote-working[/efn_note]Once governments realised the scale of the coronavirus outbreak, businesses were asked, and then told, to allow staff to work remotely where possible.[efn_note]Ballard, B. (2020, June 25). The future of remote working. The New Economy. Retrieved from https://www.theneweconomy.com/strategy/the-future-of-remote-working[/efn_note]
  • furlough:一時帰休、自宅待機▽According to The Chronicle of Higher Education, 218 American colleges and universities have laid off, furloughed, or not renewed contracts with workers because of Covid-19 — impacting at least 50,904 employees.[efn_note]Hess, A. (2020, July 2). At least 50,904 college workers have been laid off or furloughed because of Covid-19. CNBC Make It. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2020/07/02/218-colleges-have-laid-off-or-furloughed-employees-due-to-covid-19.html[/efn_note]|What is the furlough scheme? If your employer has been forced to close temporarily due to coronavirus, it can claim back part of your wages from the government.[efn_note]Grahns, A., Knapman, H., Cavanagh, N., & Benwell, S. (2020, September 2). WAGE WOES When does the furlough scheme end? The Sun. Retrieved from https://www.thesun.co.uk/money/11541429/furlough-scheme-end-uk-october/[/efn_note]The U.K. is extending a worker furlough program that pays people idled by the COVID-19 pandemic up to around $3,088 a month, as Chancellor of the Exchequer Rishi Sunak says the program will now run through the end of October.[efn_note]Chappell, B. (2020, May 12). U.K. Extends Coronavirus Furlough Payments To Workers Through End Of October. NPR. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2020/05/12/854459852/u-k-extends-coronavirus-job-furlough-program-through-end-of-october/[/efn_note]
  • lay off {layoff}:解雇する{解雇}▽A second wave of coronavirus layoffs is happening, even for workers who have returned to their jobs after losing them when coronavirus first hit the economy.[efn_note]Reinicke, C. (2020, August 7). Nearly one third of people that have gone back to work after being laid off during the coronavirus pandemic have lost their jobs again, study finds. Business Insider. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/workers-returned-jobs-coronavirus-layoffs-fired-again-study-twice-unemployment-2020-8[/efn_note]
  • job cut {job losses}:雇用{人員}削減、人員整理▽A swathe of businesses have announced job cuts as the economy has contracted sharply due to the pandemic, opting not to furlough those workers instead.[efn_note]BBC News. (2020, June 16). Coronavirus: Job cuts warning as 600,000 roles go in lockdown. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-53060529[/efn_note]Overall, the official UK unemployment rate for the three months to April held steady at 3.9% as the massive state wage support in place stopped job losses…. Tej Parikh, chief economist at the Institute of Directors, agreed: “The furlough scheme continues to hold off the bulk of job losses, but unemployment is likely to surge in the months ahead.”[efn_note]BBC News. (2020, June 16). Coronavirus: Job cuts warning as 600,000 roles go in lockdown. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-53060529[/efn_note]
  • shorter hours {shorten hours}:営業時間短縮{短縮する}▽And grocery and discount stores continue to shorten hours with several chains now dedicating time in the morning for seniors, pregnant women and high-risk groups to shop.[efn_note]Tyko, K. (2020, March 17). Coronavirus store closures, changes: See which retailers are closed or changing hours. USA Today. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/money/2020/03/17/coronavirus-store-closings-hours-changes-list/5068211002/[/efn_note]The shorter hours will also allow staff to clean the shop while there are no customers present – helping fight off the spread of coronavirus..[efn_note]Baron, O., & Shaw, N. (2020, March 16). Asda reduces opening hours because of coronavirus. Hull Live. Retrieved from https://www.hulldailymail.co.uk/news/uk-world-news/asda-reduces-opening-hours-because-3955540[/efn_note]
  • request for shorter hours {for reduced hours} {for shorter business hours} {for shorter opening hours} {request for ~ to shorten business hours {opening hours} {request for ~ to operate on reduced hours}:営業時間短縮要請▽Tokyo will extend until Sept 15 its request for establishments serving alcohol and karaoke venues in the heart of the capital to shorten business hours as part of efforts to stem the spread of the coronavirus, Gov Yuriko Koike said Thursday.[efn_note]Kyodo. (2020, Ausut 27). Tokyo to extend request for bars to shorten hours until Sept 15. Japan Today. Retrieved from https://japantoday.com/category/national/Tokyo-to-extend-request-for-bars-to-shorten-hours-until-Sept-15[/efn_note]Restaurants and other businesses in Tokyo’s 23 wards will continue to be asked to shorten business hours through Sept. 15 by the Tokyo metropolitan government.[efn_note]Japan News. (2020, August 27). Requests to close earlier to apply to restaurants, bars in Tokyo wards through Sept. 15. Retrieved from https://the-japan-news.com/news/article/0006760434[/efn_note]
  • dedicated hour:(高齢者、障害者、妊婦ら)優先時間帯▽The Iceland store in West Belfast has set aside an hour for elderly shoppers…. The store was asking shoppers to “respect the dedicated hour”…. The building society Nationwide is also trialling opening its branches one hour early for older people and those with underlying health conditions.[efn_note]BBC News. (2020, March 16). Coronavirus: Iceland stores to open early for older shoppers. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-51906744[/efn_note]Co-op is similarly introducing a dedicated hour at the start of opening for those at high risk, and their carers.[efn_note]Shennan, R. (2020, May 11). This is what supermarkets are doing to help the elderly and vulnerable during the coronavirus outbreak. Shields Gazette. Retrieved from https://www.shieldsgazette.com/read-this/what-supermarkets-are-doing-help-elderly-and-vulnerable-during-coronavirus-outbreak-2502464[/efn_note]
  • V-shaped recoveryV字型景気回復、V字回復▽There is much talk — almost all of it the product of wishful thinking — about a V-shaped recovery from the pandemic. The one place it is certainly happening is in the world’s bourses. [efn_note]Elliott, L. (2020, August 18). The only V-shaped recovery after coronavirus will be in the stock markets. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/aug/18/recovery-stock-markets-central-bank?utm_term=20110a3fcff1ec3cf1f8f8694bad5f59&utm_campaign=BestOfGuardianOpinionUS&utm_source=esp&utm_medium=Email&CMP=opinionus_email[/efn_note]

ストレス、風評

  • stay-at-home fatigue {quarantine fatigue} {isolation fatigue}:自粛疲れ{隔離疲れ}▽My concern is that there has become a high level of quarantine or stay-at-home fatigue…. I wonder if people realize that this is a new normal.[efn_note]Clair, S. S., Ryan, S., Chu, L., & Vettel, P. (2020, June 27). Phase four of Illinois’s COVID-19 reopening: Settle in, folks, we may be here a while. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from https://www.chicagotribune.com/coronavirus/ct-coronavirus-illinois-chicago-reopening-phase-four-extended-20200627-3cjsp5jonfh4leiczabhpt2gbu-story.html[/efn_note]
  • COVID fatigue:コロナ疲れ▽After months of social distancing, lockdowns, favorite businesses being close, and a lot fewer places to go for recreation, meals, and entertainment, are you feeling “COVID fatigue”?[efn_note]University of Rochester. (2020, September 11). Faculty and staff: Are you coping with ‘COVID fatigue’? Retrieved from https://www.rochester.edu/coronavirus-update/faculty-and-staff-are-you-coping-with-covid-fatigue/[/efn_note]
  • stigma:汚名▽Stigma is discrimination against an identifiable group of people, a place, or a nation. Stigma is associated with a lack of knowledge about how COVID-19 spreads, a need to blame someone, fears about disease and death, and gossip that spreads rumors and myths.[efn_note]Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, June 11). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Reducing Stigma. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/reducing-stigma.html[/efn_note]
  • reputational damage:風評被害▽A hospital in Japan’s Hyogo prefecture said patients, staff and families were enduring psychological, economic and reputational damage because of health rumours, with some refused transport and other services, or told not to come to work.[efn_note]Lema, K., & Morales, N. J. (2020, June 27). Fear on front lines as hospital staff face threats, stigma over coronavirus. Reuters. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavirus-medics/fear-on-front-lines-as-hospital-staff-face-threats-stigma-over-coronavirus-idUKKBN21H1PW[/efn_note]Among the potential risks that can impact a company, the risk of reputational damage generally ranks at or near the top of the list. With reputation one of a company’s biggest assets, any loss thereof could lead to a serious downturn in fortunes, perhaps even a cessation of business in worst-case scenarios.[efn_note]Financier Worldwide. (2020, July). Managing reputational risk in unprecedented times. Retrieved from https://www.financierworldwide.com/managing-reputational-risk-in-unprecedented-times[/efn_note]

抗体・免疫

  • B-cells, T-cellsB細胞、T細胞▽Disease-fighting antibodies, as well as immune cells called B cells and T cells that are capable of recognizing the virus, appear to persist months after infections have resolved — an encouraging echo of the body’s enduring response to other viruses.[efn_note]Wu, K. (2020, August 17). Scientists See Signs of Lasting Immunity to Covid-19, Even After Mild Infections. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/16/health/coronavirus-immunity-antibodies.html[/efn_note]B-cells fight bacteria and viruses by making Y-shaped proteins called antibodies, which are specific to each pathogen and are able to lock onto the surface of an invading cell and mark it for destruction by other immune cells…. There are two main types of T-cells: helper T-cells and killer T-cells. Helper T-cells stimulate B-cells to make antibodies and help killer cells develop. Killer T-cells directly kill cells that have already been infected by a foreign invader.[efn_note]Cancer Treatment Centers of America. (2017, May 30). What’s the Difference? B-cells and T-cells. Retrieved from https://www.cancercenter.com/community/blog/2017/05/whats-the-difference-b-cells-and-t-cells[/efn_note]
  • antibody:抗体▽Different types of antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to ‘foreign’ invaders in the body, such as viruses, and these antibodies stay in the body after the infection has ended. Antibodies are quite specific to the type of virus and can provide immunity against catching the virus again.[efn_note]NHS Imperial College Healthcare. (2020, July 30). Coronavirus testing explained. Retrieved from https://www.imperial.nhs.uk/about-us/coronavirus-innovations/coronavirus-testing-explained[/efn_note]
  • immunity:免疫▽Optimism on Covid-19 immunity climbs as studies show antibodies protect and T-cells last longer…. An encouraging body of evidence has found that T and B cells remain in the blood even once antibodies fade.[efn_note]Hayes, G., & Nuki, P. (2020, August 17). Optimism on Covid-19 immunity climbs as studies show antibodies protect and T-cells last longer. The Telegraph. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/science-and-disease/optimism-covid-19-immunity-climbs-studies-show-antibodies-protect/[/efn_note]
  • innate immunity:自然免疫▽Innate immunity consists of a series of non-specific mechanisms that prevents viruses and bacteria (pathogens) from invading the body. It includes physical barriers, such as the skin, and the cell linings of internal body parts, such as airways and lungs. The innate immune system also consists of several types of specialised cells and signalling chemicals.[efn_note]UK Parliament Post. (2020). Immunity to COVID-19: August update. Retrieved from https://post.parliament.uk/analysis/immunity-to-covid-19-august-update/[/efn_note]
  • adaptive {acquired} immunity:獲得免疫▽Adaptive immunity (also known as ‘acquired’ immunity) describes how the body builds immunological memory — so that if the person is exposed to the same infection again the body’s response is enhanced. This is the basis for immunisation with vaccines.[efn_note]UK Parliament Post. (2020). Immunity to COVID-19: August update. Retrieved from https://post.parliament.uk/analysis/immunity-to-covid-19-august-update/[/efn_note]Instead you need the adaptive immune response. This includes cells that produce targeted antibodies that can stick to the virus in order to stop it and T cells that can attack just the cells infected with the virus, called the cellular response. [efn_note]Gallagher, J. (2020, July 17). Coronavirus immunity: Can you catch it twice? BBC News. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/health-52446965[/efn_note]
  • herd immunity:集団免疫▽Levels of herd immunity within the UK may already be high enough to prevent a second wave of coronavirus, a new study by Oxford University scientists suggests.[efn_note]Gregory, A. (2020, July 17). SCoronavirus: Levels of herd immunity in UK may already be high enough to prevent second wave, study suggests. Independent. Retrieved from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/health/coronavirus-herd-immunity-second-wave-oxford-study-boris-johnson-a9623791.html[/efn_note]

旅行・渡航

  • travel restrictions:移動制限、渡航制限▽While all of the Northeast and most of the mid-Atlantic states have implemented statewide travel restrictions, 33 states, including two of the biggest, California and Texas, have no such restrictions.[efn_note]NBC News. (2020, August 21). Map: State-by-state breakdown of coronavirus travel restrictions. Retrieved from https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/map-coronavirus-travel-restrictions-inside-united-states-n1236157[/efn_note]Ireland may introduce further travel restrictions for countries with a very high instance of COVID-19, Foreign Minister Simon Coveney said on Wednesday after the government lifted its 14-day quarantine requirement for 15 European countries.[efn_note]Halpin, P. (2020, July 22). Ireland may tighten travel restrictions for COVID-19 hot spots. Reuters. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavirus-ireland-travel/ireland-may-tighten-travel-restrictions-for-covid-19-hot-spots-idUKKCN24N0V8[/efn_note]“State, local, and territorial governments may have travel restrictions in place, including testing requirements, stay-at-home orders, and quarantine requirements upon arrival,” the CDC’s Aug. 21 guidance says.[efn_note]Campbell, J. (2020, August 25). NY/NJ/CT remove Arizona, four other states from quarantine list; VMA performers exempted. USA Today. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/travel/news/2020/08/25/ny-nj-quarantine-order-vma-acts-exempted-5-states-cut-list/3434207001/[/efn_note]
  • self-isolate:自己隔離する▽Coronavirus regulations mean that you must self-isolate for 14 days when you arrive in the UK. This applies to UK residents and visitors to the UK.[efn_note]Gov.UK. (2020, June 16). Coronavirus (COVID-19): travel corridors. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/guidance/coronavirus-covid-19-travel-corridors[/efn_note]
  • quarantine:隔離(期間)(する)、検疫▽These [health measures] can include a requirement to self-isolate, quarantine or undergo testing for coronavirus, or even restrictions on entry.[efn_note]Gov.UK. (2020, June 16). Coronavirus (COVID-19): travel corridors. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/guidance/coronavirus-covid-19-travel-corridors[/efn_note]Travellers from more than 50 countries deemed ”low risk” do not have to quarantine, although some of these countries impose restrictions on travellers entering from the UK…. France and the Netherlands were added to the quarantine list on 15 August, along with Monaco, Malta, Turks and Caicos, and Aruba…. Travellers could find they also have to enter quarantine when they arrive in another country.[efn_note]BBC News. (2020, August 21). Coronavirus: What are the UK travel quarantine rules? Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/explainers-52544307[/efn_note]Given the global distribution of the virus and working from the principle of precaution, it is necessary that anyone coming from abroad observe a 14-day quarantine period.[efn_note]AFP. (2020, May 12). Spain unveils 14-day quarantine for arrivals. MSN. Retrieved from https://www.msn.com/en-us/travel/news/spain-unveils-14-day-quarantine-for-arrivals/ar-BB13Xz5Y[/efn_note]
  • entry restriction:入国制限▽As of April 6, there are no entry restrictions in Ireland, according to the Irish government.[efn_note]Salcedo, A., Yar, S., & Cherelus, G. (2020, July 16). Coronavirus Travel Restrictions, Across the Globe. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/article/coronavirus-travel-restrictions.html[/efn_note]
  • entry ban:入国禁止▽The country said it would add 18 countries to its entry ban from July 1, according to a June 29 posting on the foreign ministry website. That brings the total number of countries subject to Japan’s entry ban to 129.[efn_note]Reuters. (2020, June 30). Japan says coronavirus border controls in place, adding 18 countries to entry ban. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-japan-border/japan-says-coronavirus-border-controls-in-place-adding-18-countries-to-entry-ban-idUSKBN24109Z[/efn_note]

ワクチン

  • mRNA vaccineRNAワクチン▽Moderna’s messenger RNA vaccine, on the other hand, is completely new and revolutionary to say the least. It uses a sequence of genetic RNA material produced in a lab that, when injected into your body, must invade your cells and hijack your cells’ protein-making machinery called ribosomes to produce the viral components that subsequently train your immune system to fight the virus.[efn_note]Gu, E. (2020, May 19). This is the hard-to-swallow truth about a future coronavirus vaccine (and yes, I’m a doctor). Independent. Retrieved from https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/coronavirus-vaccine-covid-19-cure-doctor-moderna-novavax-oxford-a9523091.html[/efn_note]
  • DNA vaccineDNAワクチン▽In contrast to the more widespread “conventional” vaccines which use a whole pathogen or fragment, a DNA vaccine involves the injection of a small part of the virus’s genetic code (DNA or RNA) to stimulate immune response in a patient without an infection.[efn_note]Reuters. (2020, May 19). False claim: A COVID-19 vaccine will genetically modify humans. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-factcheck-covid-19-vaccine-modify/false-claim-a-covid-19-vaccine-will-genetically-modify-humans-idUSKBN22U2BZ[/efn_note]
  • inactivated vaccine:不活性化ワクチン▽The Chinese biopharmaceutical has developed an inactivated vaccine that uses a non-infectious version of the virus to provoke an immune response.[efn_note]Lovett, S. (2020, August 5). Coronavirus vaccine: Which candidates are the most promising? Independent. Retrieved from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/health/coronavirus-vaccine-when-covid-russia-china-moderna-oxford-who-a9653066.html[/efn_note]
  • inactivated virus :不活性化されたウイルス
  • attenuated virus:弱毒化されたウイルス
  • placebo:プラシーボ(偽薬)
  • dose:(薬の)1回分▽Moderna’s vaccine requires two doses given four weeks apart.[efn_note]Lovelace, B. Jr. (2021, May 5). Moderna says Covid booster shot generates promising immune response against variants found in South Africa, Brazil. CNBC. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2021/05/05/covid-booster-shot-moderna-says-vaccine-generates-promising-immune-response-against-variants.html/[/efn_note]|The vaccine is administered in two doses spaced 21 days apart.[efn_note]Mayer, C. (2021, May 3). How to Get the COVID-19 Vaccine as a Teen. The Central Bullletin. Retrieved from https://thecentralbulletin.com/979/news/how-to-get-the-covid-19-vaccine-as-a-teen/[/efn_note]

  • antibody-dependent enhanced (ADE):抗体依存性感染増強▽No antibody-dependent enhanced disease events were reported.[efn_note]Cision PR Newswire. (2020, July 30). INOVIO’s COVID-19 DNA Vaccine INO-4800 Provides Protection with Memory Immune Responses In Non-Human Primates Challenged with SARS-CoV-2 Virus. Retrieved from https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/inovios-covid-19-dna-vaccine-ino-4800-provides-protection-with-memory-immune-responses-in-non-human-primates-challenged-with-sars-cov-2-virus-301103039.html[/efn_note]|“In particular, NVAX disclosed new non-human primate (NHP) challenge data that reaffirmed our confidence in the strong immune response expected with ‘2373 to correlate with long-term disease protection and minimized risk of antibody-dependent enhanced disease (ADE) or vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD)” the analyst commented.[efn_note]Lefton, H. (2020, July 24). Novavax Signs Vaccine Manufacturing Deal; Analyst Bullish On Upcoming Readout. Nasdaq Latest News. Retrieved from https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/novavax-signs-vaccine-manufacturing-deal-analyst-bullish-on-upcoming-readout-2020-07-24[/efn_note]

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